Timaeus by Plato
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Plato Timaeus

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[Timaeus] [6] those who were yesterday my guests and are to be my entertainers to-day?
[Timaeus] [11] SOCRATES: Then, if he is not coming, you and the two others must supply
[Timaeus] [14] TIMAEUS: Certainly, and we will do all that we can; having been handsomely
[Timaeus] [21] TIMAEUS: We remember some of them, and you will be here to remind us of
[Timaeus] [23] will you briefly recapitulate the whole, and then the particulars will be
[Timaeus] [27] was the State--how constituted and of what citizens composed it would seem
[Timaeus] [30] TIMAEUS: Yes, Socrates; and what you said of it was very much to our mind.
[Timaeus] [32] SOCRATES: Did we not begin by separating the husbandmen and the artisans
[Timaeus] [37] SOCRATES: And when we had given to each one that single employment and
[Timaeus] [39] intended to be our warriors, and said that they were to be guardians of the
[Timaeus] [40] city against attacks from within as well as from without, and to have no
[Timaeus] [48] gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and
[Timaeus] [49] philosophical; and that then they would be as they ought to be, gentle to
[Timaeus] [50] their friends and fierce with their enemies.
[Timaeus] [54] SOCRATES: And what did we say of their education? Were they not to be
[Timaeus] [55] trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which
[Timaeus] [60] SOCRATES: And being thus trained they were not to consider gold or silver
[Timaeus] [64] life; and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the
[Timaeus] [70] natures should be assimilated and brought into harmony with those of the
[Timaeus] [71] men, and that common pursuits should be assigned to them both in time of
[Timaeus] [72] war and in their ordinary life.
[Timaeus] [76] SOCRATES: And what about the procreation of children? Or rather was not
[Timaeus] [77] the proposal too singular to be forgotten? for all wives and children were
[Timaeus] [80] within a suitable limit of age were to be brothers and sisters, those who
[Timaeus] [81] were of an elder generation parents and grandparents, and those of a
[Timaeus] [82] younger, children and grandchildren.
[Timaeus] [84] TIMAEUS: Yes, and the proposal is easy to remember, as you say.
[Timaeus] [86] SOCRATES: And do you also remember how, with a view of securing as far as
[Timaeus] [87] we could the best breed, we said that the chief magistrates, male and
[Timaeus] [89] the nuptial meeting, that the bad of either sex and the good of either sex
[Timaeus] [90] might pair with their like; and there was to be no quarrelling on this
[Timaeus] [91] account, for they would imagine that the union was a mere accident, and was
[Timaeus] [96] SOCRATES: And you remember how we said that the children of the good
[Timaeus] [97] parents were to be educated, and the children of the bad secretly dispersed
[Timaeus] [98] among the inferior citizens; and while they were all growing up the rulers
[Timaeus] [99] were to be on the look-out, and to bring up from below in their turn those
[Timaeus] [100] who were worthy, and those among themselves who were unworthy were to take
[Timaeus] [117] describing. There are conflicts which all cities undergo, and I should
[Timaeus] [119] her neighbours, and how she went out to war in a becoming manner, and when
[Timaeus] [120] at war showed by the greatness of her actions and the magnanimity of her
[Timaeus] [121] words in dealing with other cities a result worthy of her training and
[Timaeus] [122] education. Now I, Critias and Hermocrates, am conscious that I myself
[Timaeus] [123] should never be able to celebrate the city and her citizens in a befitting
[Timaeus] [124] manner, and I am not surprised at my own incapacity; to me the wonder is
[Timaeus] [127] imitators, and will imitate best and most easily the life in which they
[Timaeus] [129] education he finds hard to carry out in action, and still harder adequately
[Timaeus] [131] brave words and fair conceits, but I am afraid that being only wanderers
[Timaeus] [132] from one city to another, and having never had habitations of their own,
[Timaeus] [133] they may fail in their conception of philosophers and statesmen, and may
[Timaeus] [134] not know what they do and say in time of war, when they are fighting or
[Timaeus] [135] holding parley with their enemies. And thus people of your class are the
[Timaeus] [136] only ones remaining who are fitted by nature and education to take part at
[Timaeus] [137] once both in politics and philosophy. Here is Timaeus, of Locris in Italy,
[Timaeus] [138] a city which has admirable laws, and who is himself in wealth and rank the
[Timaeus] [139] equal of any of his fellow-citizens; he has held the most important and
[Timaeus] [140] honourable offices in his own state, and, as I believe, has scaled the
[Timaeus] [141] heights of all philosophy; and here is Critias, whom every Athenian knows
[Timaeus] [142] to be no novice in the matters of which we are speaking; and as to
[Timaeus] [143] Hermocrates, I am assured by many witnesses that his genius and education
[Timaeus] [144] qualify him to take part in any speculation of the kind. And therefore
[Timaeus] [147] none were better qualified to carry the discussion further, and that when
[Timaeus] [150] in return imposed this other task upon you. You conferred together and
[Timaeus] [152] discourse. Here am I in festive array, and no man can be more ready for
[Timaeus] [155] HERMOCRATES: And we too, Socrates, as Timaeus says, will not be wanting in
[Timaeus] [156] enthusiasm; and there is no excuse for not complying with your request. As
[Timaeus] [158] are staying, or rather on our way thither, we talked the matter over, and
[Timaeus] [169] seven sages. He was a relative and a dear friend of my great-grandfather,
[Timaeus] [170] Dropides, as he himself says in many passages of his poems; and he told the
[Timaeus] [171] story to Critias, my grandfather, who remembered and repeated it to us.
[Timaeus] [172] There were of old, he said, great and marvellous actions of the Athenian
[Timaeus] [173] city, which have passed into oblivion through lapse of time and the
[Timaeus] [174] destruction of mankind, and one in particular, greater than all the rest.
[Timaeus] [176] to you, and a hymn of praise true and worthy of the goddess, on this her
[Timaeus] [179] SOCRATES: Very good. And what is this ancient famous action of the
[Timaeus] [185] years of age, and I was about ten. Now the day was that day of the
[Timaeus] [187] custom, our parents gave prizes for recitations, and the poems of several
[Timaeus] [188] poets were recited by us boys, and many of us sang the poems of Solon,
[Timaeus] [192] man, as I very well remember, brightened up at hearing this and said,
[Timaeus] [194] the business of his life, and had completed the tale which he brought with
[Timaeus] [195] him from Egypt, and had not been compelled, by reason of the factions and
[Timaeus] [200] And what was the tale about, Critias? said Amynander.
[Timaeus] [202] About the greatest action which the Athenians ever did, and which ought to
[Timaeus] [203] have been the most famous, but, through the lapse of time and the
[Timaeus] [206] Tell us, said the other, the whole story, and how and from whom Solon heard
[Timaeus] [211] and the great city of the district is also called Sais, and is the city
[Timaeus] [213] foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by
[Timaeus] [215] the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them. To this
[Timaeus] [216] city came Solon, and was received there with great honour; he asked the
[Timaeus] [217] priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made
[Timaeus] [221] our part of the world--about Phoroneus, who is called 'the first man,' and
[Timaeus] [222] about Niobe; and after the Deluge, of the survival of Deucalion and Pyrrha;
[Timaeus] [223] and he traced the genealogy of their descendants, and reckoning up the
[Timaeus] [227] and there is not an old man among you. Solon in return asked him what he
[Timaeus] [230] which is hoary with age. And I will tell you why. There have been, and
[Timaeus] [232] greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and
[Timaeus] [237] and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt. Now this has the form of a
[Timaeus] [239] heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the
[Timaeus] [241] the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction
[Timaeus] [242] than those who dwell by rivers or on the seashore. And from this calamity
[Timaeus] [243] the Nile, who is our never-failing saviour, delivers and preserves us.
[Timaeus] [245] the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the
[Timaeus] [252] greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. And whatever happened either in your
[Timaeus] [255] have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.
[Timaeus] [256] Whereas just when you and other nations are beginning to be provided with
[Timaeus] [257] letters and the other requisites of civilized life, after the usual
[Timaeus] [259] and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education;
[Timaeus] [260] and so you have to begin all over again like children, and know nothing of
[Timaeus] [266] fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived, and that you and your
[Timaeus] [268] survived. And this was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the
[Timaeus] [271] Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities,
[Timaeus] [272] is said to have performed the noblest deeds and to have had the fairest
[Timaeus] [274] Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform
[Timaeus] [275] him exactly and in order about these former citizens. You are welcome to
[Timaeus] [276] hear about them, Solon, said the priest, both for your own sake and for
[Timaeus] [277] that of your city, and above all, for the sake of the goddess who is the
[Timaeus] [278] common patron and parent and educator of both our cities. She founded your
[Timaeus] [280] (9000 years ago) for the foundation of Athens and for the repulse of the
[Timaeus] [281] invasion from Atlantis (Crit.).), receiving from the Earth and Hephaestus
[Timaeus] [282] the seed of your race, and afterwards she founded ours, of which the
[Timaeus] [285] their laws and of their most famous action; the exact particulars of the
[Timaeus] [291] crafts by themselves and do not intermix; and also there is the class of
[Timaeus] [292] shepherds and of hunters, as well as that of husbandmen; and you will
[Timaeus] [294] classes, and are commanded by the law to devote themselves solely to
[Timaeus] [295] military pursuits; moreover, the weapons which they carry are shields and
[Timaeus] [299] things, extending even to prophecy and medicine which gives health, out of
[Timaeus] [300] these divine elements deriving what was needful for human life, and adding
[Timaeus] [301] every sort of knowledge which was akin to them. All this order and
[Timaeus] [303] and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw
[Timaeus] [305] wisest of men. Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war and of
[Timaeus] [306] wisdom, selected and first of all settled that spot which was the most
[Timaeus] [307] likely to produce men likest herself. And there you dwelt, having such
[Timaeus] [308] laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all
[Timaeus] [309] virtue, as became the children and disciples of the gods.
[Timaeus] [311] Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories.
[Timaeus] [312] But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour. For these
[Timaeus] [314] against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end.
[Timaeus] [316] Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the
[Timaeus] [318] larger than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands,
[Timaeus] [319] and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which
[Timaeus] [322] real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless
[Timaeus] [323] continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful
[Timaeus] [324] empire which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over
[Timaeus] [325] parts of the continent, and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected
[Timaeus] [326] the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of
[Timaeus] [328] endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country and yours and the whole of the
[Timaeus] [329] region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in
[Timaeus] [330] the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind. She was
[Timaeus] [331] pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the
[Timaeus] [332] Hellenes. And when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand
[Timaeus] [334] and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were
[Timaeus] [335] not yet subjugated, and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell
[Timaeus] [336] within the pillars. But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and
[Timaeus] [337] floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in
[Timaeus] [338] a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner
[Timaeus] [340] parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in
[Timaeus] [341] the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.
[Timaeus] [344] and related to us. And when you were speaking yesterday about your city
[Timaeus] [345] and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my
[Timaeus] [346] mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence,
[Timaeus] [348] did not like to speak at the moment. For a long time had elapsed, and I
[Timaeus] [350] narrative in my own mind, and then I would speak. And so I readily
[Timaeus] [352] chief difficulty is to find a tale suitable to our purpose, and that with
[Timaeus] [355] And therefore, as Hermocrates has told you, on my way home yesterday I at
[Timaeus] [356] once communicated the tale to my companions as I remembered it; and after I
[Timaeus] [363] me, and I asked him again and again to repeat his words, so that like an
[Timaeus] [366] well as myself, might have something to say. And now, Socrates, to make an
[Timaeus] [369] The city and citizens, which you yesterday described to us in fiction, we
[Timaeus] [371] Athens, and we will suppose that the citizens whom you imagined, were our
[Timaeus] [373] harmonize, and there will be no inconsistency in saying that the citizens
[Timaeus] [375] among us, and all endeavour according to our ability gracefully to execute
[Timaeus] [380] SOCRATES: And what other, Critias, can we find that will be better than
[Timaeus] [381] this, which is natural and suitable to the festival of the goddess, and has
[Timaeus] [382] the very great advantage of being a fact and not a fiction? How or where
[Timaeus] [383] shall we find another if we abandon this? We cannot, and therefore you
[Timaeus] [384] must tell the tale, and good luck to you; and I in return for my
[Timaeus] [385] yesterday's discourse will now rest and be a listener.
[Timaeus] [389] the most of an astronomer amongst us, and has made the nature of the
[Timaeus] [391] generation of the world and going down to the creation of man; next, I am
[Timaeus] [392] to receive the men whom he has created, and of whom some will have profited
[Timaeus] [393] by the excellent education which you have given them; and then, in
[Timaeus] [394] accordance with the tale of Solon, and equally with his law, we will bring
[Timaeus] [395] them into court and make them citizens, as if they were those very
[Timaeus] [396] Athenians whom the sacred Egyptian record has recovered from oblivion, and
[Timaeus] [397] thenceforward we will speak of them as Athenians and fellow-citizens.
[Timaeus] [399] SOCRATES: I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid
[Timaeus] [400] feast of reason. And now, Timaeus, you, I suppose, should speak next,
[Timaeus] [405] God. And we, too, who are going to discourse of the nature of the
[Timaeus] [407] altogether out of our wits, must invoke the aid of Gods and Goddesses and
[Timaeus] [408] pray that our words may be acceptable to them and consistent with
[Timaeus] [411] intelligible to you, and will most accord with my own intent.
[Timaeus] [413] First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask, What is
[Timaeus] [414] that which always is and has no becoming; and what is that which is always
[Timaeus] [415] becoming and never is? That which is apprehended by intelligence and
[Timaeus] [417] with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of
[Timaeus] [418] becoming and perishing and never really is. Now everything that becomes or
[Timaeus] [421] unchangeable and fashions the form and nature of his work after an
[Timaeus] [422] unchangeable pattern, must necessarily be made fair and perfect; but when
[Timaeus] [423] he looks to the created only, and uses a created pattern, it is not fair or
[Timaeus] [427] the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created,
[Timaeus] [428] and had it a beginning? Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and
[Timaeus] [429] having a body, and therefore sensible; and all sensible things are
[Timaeus] [430] apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and
[Timaeus] [432] created by a cause. But the father and maker of all this universe is past
[Timaeus] [433] finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be
[Timaeus] [434] impossible. And there is still a question to be asked about him: Which of
[Timaeus] [437] fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to
[Timaeus] [440] looked to the eternal; for the world is the fairest of creations and he is
[Timaeus] [441] the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has
[Timaeus] [442] been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind
[Timaeus] [443] and is unchangeable, and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted,
[Timaeus] [445] everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and
[Timaeus] [447] describe; when they relate to the lasting and permanent and intelligible,
[Timaeus] [448] they ought to be lasting and unalterable, and, as far as their nature
[Timaeus] [449] allows, irrefutable and immovable--nothing less. But when they express
[Timaeus] [450] only the copy or likeness and not the eternal things themselves, they need
[Timaeus] [451] only be likely and analogous to the real words. As being is to becoming,
[Timaeus] [453] gods and the generation of the universe, we are not able to give notions
[Timaeus] [454] which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one
[Timaeus] [456] as any others; for we must remember that I who am the speaker, and you who
[Timaeus] [457] are the judges, are only mortal men, and we ought to accept the tale which
[Timaeus] [458] is probable and enquire no further.
[Timaeus] [460] SOCRATES: Excellent, Timaeus; and we will do precisely as you bid us. The
[Timaeus] [461] prelude is charming, and is already accepted by us--may we beg of you to
[Timaeus] [465] generation. He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of
[Timaeus] [466] anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should
[Timaeus] [468] origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on
[Timaeus] [469] the testimony of wise men: God desired that all things should be good and
[Timaeus] [471] whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly
[Timaeus] [474] or have been other than the fairest; and the creator, reflecting on the
[Timaeus] [476] taken as a whole was fairer than the intelligent taken as a whole; and that
[Timaeus] [479] soul, and soul in body, that he might be the creator of a work which was by
[Timaeus] [480] nature fairest and best. Wherefore, using the language of probability, we
[Timaeus] [481] may say that the world became a living creature truly endowed with soul and
[Timaeus] [489] individually and in their tribes are portions. For the original of the
[Timaeus] [491] comprehends us and all other visible creatures. For the Deity, intending
[Timaeus] [492] to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible
[Timaeus] [495] world, or that they are many and infinite? There must be one only, if the
[Timaeus] [499] and of which they would be parts, and the likeness would be more truly said
[Timaeus] [502] not two worlds or an infinite number of them; but there is and ever will be
[Timaeus] [503] one only-begotten and created heaven.
[Timaeus] [505] Now that which is created is of necessity corporeal, and also visible and
[Timaeus] [506] tangible. And nothing is visible where there is no fire, or tangible which
[Timaeus] [507] has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth. Wherefore also God in
[Timaeus] [509] and earth. But two things cannot be rightly put together without a third;
[Timaeus] [510] there must be some bond of union between them. And the fairest bond is
[Timaeus] [511] that which makes the most complete fusion of itself and the things which it
[Timaeus] [512] combines; and proportion is best adapted to effect such a union. For
[Timaeus] [514] which is to the last term what the first term is to it; and again, when the
[Timaeus] [516] becoming first and last, and the first and last both becoming means, they
[Timaeus] [517] will all of them of necessity come to be the same, and having become the
[Timaeus] [519] created a surface only and having no depth, a single mean would have
[Timaeus] [520] sufficed to bind together itself and the other terms; but now, as the world
[Timaeus] [521] must be solid, and solid bodies are always compacted not by one mean but by
[Timaeus] [522] two, God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth, and made
[Timaeus] [524] so is air to water, and as air is to water so is water to earth); and thus
[Timaeus] [525] he bound and put together a visible and tangible heaven. And for these
[Timaeus] [526] reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the
[Timaeus] [527] world was created, and it was harmonized by proportion, and therefore has
[Timaeus] [528] the spirit of friendship; and having been reconciled to itself, it was
[Timaeus] [532] Creator compounded the world out of all the fire and all the water and all
[Timaeus] [533] the air and all the earth, leaving no part of any of them nor any power of
[Timaeus] [535] should be as far as possible a perfect whole and of perfect parts:
[Timaeus] [537] such world might be created: and also that it should be free from old age
[Timaeus] [538] and unaffected by disease. Considering that if heat and cold and other
[Timaeus] [539] powerful forces which unite bodies surround and attack them from without
[Timaeus] [540] when they are unprepared, they decompose them, and by bringing diseases and
[Timaeus] [541] old age upon them, make them waste away--for this cause and on these
[Timaeus] [542] grounds he made the world one whole, having every part entire, and being
[Timaeus] [543] therefore perfect and not liable to old age and disease. And he gave to
[Timaeus] [544] the world the figure which was suitable and also natural. Now to the
[Timaeus] [548] direction equidistant from the centre, the most perfect and the most like
[Timaeus] [553] ears when there was nothing to be heard; and there was no surrounding
[Timaeus] [558] own waste providing his own food, and all that he did or suffered taking
[Timaeus] [559] place in and by himself. For the Creator conceived that a being which was
[Timaeus] [561] and, as he had no need to take anything or defend himself against any one,
[Timaeus] [565] seven that which is most appropriate to mind and intelligence; and he was
[Timaeus] [566] made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits
[Timaeus] [568] and he was made not to partake of their deviations. And as this circular
[Timaeus] [569] movement required no feet, the universe was created without legs and
[Timaeus] [573] whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in
[Timaeus] [574] every direction equidistant from the centre, a body entire and perfect, and
[Timaeus] [575] formed out of perfect bodies. And in the centre he put the soul, which he
[Timaeus] [577] of it; and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and
[Timaeus] [578] solitary, yet by reason of its excellence able to converse with itself, and
[Timaeus] [586] much under the dominion of chance. Whereas he made the soul in origin and
[Timaeus] [587] excellence prior to and older than the body, to be the ruler and mistress,
[Timaeus] [588] of whom the body was to be the subject. And he made her out of the
[Timaeus] [589] following elements and on this wise: Out of the indivisible and
[Timaeus] [590] unchangeable, and also out of that which is divisible and has to do with
[Timaeus] [591] material bodies, he compounded a third and intermediate kind of essence,
[Timaeus] [592] partaking of the nature of the same and of the other, and this compound he
[Timaeus] [593] placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and
[Timaeus] [594] material. He took the three elements of the same, the other, and the
[Timaeus] [595] essence, and mingled them into one form, compressing by force the reluctant
[Timaeus] [596] and unsociable nature of the other into the same. When he had mingled them
[Timaeus] [597] with the essence and out of three made one, he again divided this whole
[Timaeus] [599] same, the other, and the essence. And he proceeded to divide after this
[Timaeus] [600] manner:--First of all, he took away one part of the whole (1), and then he
[Timaeus] [601] separated a second part which was double the first (2), and then he took
[Timaeus] [602] away a third part which was half as much again as the second and three
[Timaeus] [603] times as much as the first (3), and then he took a fourth part which was
[Timaeus] [604] twice as much as the second (4), and a fifth part which was three times the
[Timaeus] [605] third (9), and a sixth part which was eight times the first (8), and a
[Timaeus] [607] filled up the double intervals (i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8) and the triple
[Timaeus] [609] and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two
[Timaeus] [610] kinds of means, the one exceeding and exceeded by equal parts of its
[Timaeus] [612] more than 1, and one-third of 2 less than 2), the other being that kind of
[Timaeus] [613] mean which exceeds and is exceeded by an equal number (e.g.
[Timaeus] [615] - over 1, 4/3, 3/2, - over 2, 8/3, 3, - over 4, 16/3, 6, - over 8: and
[Timaeus] [618] Where there were intervals of 3/2 and of 4/3 and of 9/8, made by the
[Timaeus] [620] 4/3 with the interval of 9/8, leaving a fraction over; and the interval
[Timaeus] [625] And thus the whole mixture out of which he cut these portions was all
[Timaeus] [627] parts, which he joined to one another at the centre like the letter X, and
[Timaeus] [628] bent them into a circular form, connecting them with themselves and each
[Timaeus] [629] other at the point opposite to their original meeting-point; and,
[Timaeus] [631] one the outer and the other the inner circle. Now the motion of the outer
[Timaeus] [632] circle he called the motion of the same, and the motion of the inner circle
[Timaeus] [635] in the circle of the Same) to the right, and the motion of the diverse
[Timaeus] [637] the left. And he gave dominion to the motion of the same and like, for
[Timaeus] [638] that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in
[Timaeus] [639] six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in
[Timaeus] [640] ratios of two and three, three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a
[Timaeus] [641] direction opposite to one another; and three (Sun, Mercury, Venus) he made
[Timaeus] [642] to move with equal swiftness, and the remaining four (Moon, Saturn, Mars,
[Timaeus] [643] Jupiter) to move with unequal swiftness to the three and to one another,
[Timaeus] [647] within her the corporeal universe, and brought the two together, and united
[Timaeus] [650] herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never-ceasing and
[Timaeus] [652] but the soul is invisible, and partakes of reason and harmony, and being
[Timaeus] [653] made by the best of intellectual and everlasting natures, is the best of
[Timaeus] [654] things created. And because she is composed of the same and of the other
[Timaeus] [655] and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due
[Timaeus] [656] proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself, the soul, when
[Timaeus] [659] difference of that thing and some other; and to what individuals are
[Timaeus] [660] related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in
[Timaeus] [661] the world of generation and in the world of immutable being. And when
[Timaeus] [665] sensible world and when the circle of the diverse also moving truly imparts
[Timaeus] [666] the intimations of sense to the whole soul, then arise opinions and beliefs
[Timaeus] [667] sure and certain. But when reason is concerned with the rational, and the
[Timaeus] [668] circle of the same moving smoothly declares it, then intelligence and
[Timaeus] [669] knowledge are necessarily perfected. And if any one affirms that in which
[Timaeus] [673] When the father and creator saw the creature which he had made moving and
[Timaeus] [674] living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy
[Timaeus] [675] determined to make the copy still more like the original; and as this was
[Timaeus] [679] have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he
[Timaeus] [681] itself rests in unity; and this image we call time. For there were no days
[Timaeus] [682] and nights and months and years before the heaven was created, but when he
[Timaeus] [684] and the past and future are created species of time, which we unconsciously
[Timaeus] [687] to him, and that 'was' and 'will be' are only to be spoken of becoming in
[Timaeus] [691] which affect moving and sensible things and of which generation is the
[Timaeus] [692] cause. These are the forms of time, which imitates eternity and revolves
[Timaeus] [694] IS become and what becomes IS becoming, and that what will become IS about
[Timaeus] [695] to become and that the non-existent IS non-existent--all these are
[Timaeus] [699] Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order
[Timaeus] [703] for the pattern exists from eternity, and the created heaven has been, and
[Timaeus] [704] is, and will be, in all time. Such was the mind and thought of God in the
[Timaeus] [705] creation of time. The sun and moon and five other stars, which are called
[Timaeus] [706] the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the
[Timaeus] [707] numbers of time; and when he had made their several bodies, he placed them
[Timaeus] [710] earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the
[Timaeus] [711] morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an
[Timaeus] [712] equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction; and this is the
[Timaeus] [713] reason why the sun and Hermes and Lucifer overtake and are overtaken by
[Timaeus] [715] and to give all the reasons why he assigned them, although a secondary
[Timaeus] [721] attained a motion suitable to them, and had become living creatures having
[Timaeus] [722] bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task, moving in
[Timaeus] [723] the motion of the diverse, which is diagonal, and passes through and is
[Timaeus] [724] governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and
[Timaeus] [726] and those which had the larger more slowly. Now by reason of the motion of
[Timaeus] [729] the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and
[Timaeus] [732] might be some visible measure of their relative swiftness and slowness as
[Timaeus] [735] give light to the whole of heaven, and that the animals, as many as nature
[Timaeus] [737] revolution of the same and the like. Thus then, and for this reason the
[Timaeus] [738] night and the day were created, being the period of the one most
[Timaeus] [739] intelligent revolution. And the month is accomplished when the moon has
[Timaeus] [740] completed her orbit and overtaken the sun, and the year when the sun has
[Timaeus] [742] remarked the periods of the other stars, and they have no name for them,
[Timaeus] [743] and do not measure them against one another by the help of number, and
[Timaeus] [745] infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time. And yet
[Timaeus] [748] degrees of swiftness, are accomplished together and attain their completion
[Timaeus] [749] at the same time, measured by the rotation of the same and equally moving.
[Timaeus] [750] After this manner, and for these reasons, came into being such of the stars
[Timaeus] [752] the created heaven might imitate the eternal nature, and be as like as
[Timaeus] [753] possible to the perfect and intelligible animal.
[Timaeus] [755] Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the
[Timaeus] [759] animal the mind perceives ideas or species of a certain nature and number,
[Timaeus] [761] and number. There are four such; one of them is the heavenly race of the
[Timaeus] [763] watery species; and the fourth, the pedestrian and land creatures. Of the
[Timaeus] [764] heavenly and divine, he created the greater part out of fire, that they
[Timaeus] [765] might be the brightest of all things and fairest to behold, and he
[Timaeus] [767] circle, and made them follow the intelligent motion of the supreme,
[Timaeus] [769] true cosmos or glorious world spangled with them all over. And he gave to
[Timaeus] [773] they are controlled by the revolution of the same and the like; but by the
[Timaeus] [775] attain the highest perfection. And for this reason the fixed stars were
[Timaeus] [776] created, to be divine and eternal animals, ever-abiding and revolving after
[Timaeus] [777] the same manner and on the same spot; and the other stars which reverse
[Timaeus] [778] their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in
[Timaeus] [781] framed to be the guardian and artificer of night and day, first and eldest
[Timaeus] [783] tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their
[Timaeus] [784] juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon
[Timaeus] [785] themselves, and their approximations, and to say which of these deities in
[Timaeus] [786] their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what
[Timaeus] [787] order they get behind and before one another, and when they are severally
[Timaeus] [788] eclipsed to our sight and again reappear, sending terrors and intimations
[Timaeus] [791] would be labour in vain. Enough on this head; and now let what we have
[Timaeus] [792] said about the nature of the created and visible gods have an end.
[Timaeus] [794] To know or tell the origin of the other divinities is beyond us, and we
[Timaeus] [796] be the offspring of the gods--that is what they say--and they must surely
[Timaeus] [800] we must conform to custom and believe them. In this manner, then,
[Timaeus] [801] according to them, the genealogy of these gods is to be received and set
[Timaeus] [804] Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from these
[Timaeus] [805] sprang Phorcys and Cronos and Rhea, and all that generation; and from
[Timaeus] [806] Cronos and Rhea sprang Zeus and Here, and all those who are said to be
[Timaeus] [807] their brethren, and others who were the children of these.
[Timaeus] [812] 'Gods, children of gods, who are my works, and of whom I am the artificer
[Timaeus] [813] and father, my creations are indissoluble, if so I will. All that is bound
[Timaeus] [815] harmonious and happy. Wherefore, since ye are but creatures, ye are not
[Timaeus] [816] altogether immortal and indissoluble, but ye shall certainly not be
[Timaeus] [818] and mightier bond than those with which ye were bound at the time of your
[Timaeus] [819] birth. And now listen to my instructions:--Three tribes of mortal beings
[Timaeus] [822] to be perfect. On the other hand, if they were created by me and received
[Timaeus] [824] then that they may be mortal, and that this universe may be truly
[Timaeus] [828] and is the guiding principle of those who are willing to follow justice and
[Timaeus] [829] you--of that divine part I will myself sow the seed, and having made a
[Timaeus] [830] beginning, I will hand the work over to you. And do ye then interweave the
[Timaeus] [831] mortal with the immortal, and make and beget living creatures, and give
[Timaeus] [832] them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death.'
[Timaeus] [834] Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously
[Timaeus] [835] mingled the soul of the universe he poured the remains of the elements, and
[Timaeus] [837] before, but diluted to the second and third degree. And having made it he
[Timaeus] [838] divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars, and
[Timaeus] [839] assigned each soul to a star; and having there placed them as in a chariot,
[Timaeus] [840] he showed them the nature of the universe, and declared to them the laws of
[Timaeus] [841] destiny, according to which their first birth would be one and the same for
[Timaeus] [843] sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come
[Timaeus] [844] forth the most religious of animals; and as human nature was of two kinds,
[Timaeus] [846] implanted in bodies by necessity, and be always gaining or losing some part
[Timaeus] [848] that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation,
[Timaeus] [850] have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle; also fear and anger, and the
[Timaeus] [852] would live righteously, and if they were conquered by them, unrighteously.
[Timaeus] [853] He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his
[Timaeus] [854] native star, and there he would have a blessed and congenial existence.
[Timaeus] [856] a woman, and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil,
[Timaeus] [858] evil nature which he had acquired, and would not cease from his toils and
[Timaeus] [859] transformations until he followed the revolution of the same and the like
[Timaeus] [860] within him, and overcame by the help of reason the turbulent and irrational
[Timaeus] [861] mob of later accretions, made up of fire and air and water and earth, and
[Timaeus] [862] returned to the form of his first and better state. Having given all these
[Timaeus] [864] them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon,
[Timaeus] [865] and some in the other instruments of time; and when he had sown them he
[Timaeus] [866] committed to the younger gods the fashioning of their mortal bodies, and
[Timaeus] [867] desired them to furnish what was still lacking to the human soul, and
[Timaeus] [868] having made all the suitable additions, to rule over them, and to pilot the
[Timaeus] [869] mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert
[Timaeus] [873] accustomed nature, and his children heard and were obedient to their
[Timaeus] [874] father's word, and receiving from him the immortal principle of a mortal
[Timaeus] [876] and earth, and water, and air from the world, which were hereafter to be
[Timaeus] [877] restored--these they took and welded them together, not with the
[Timaeus] [880] separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body
[Timaeus] [881] which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux. Now these courses,
[Timaeus] [883] hurrying and hurried to and fro, so that the whole animal was moved and
[Timaeus] [884] progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six
[Timaeus] [885] directions of motion, wandering backwards and forwards, and right and left,
[Timaeus] [886] and up and down, and in all the six directions. For great as was the
[Timaeus] [887] advancing and retiring flood which provided nourishment, the affections
[Timaeus] [889] any one met and came into collision with some external fire, or with the
[Timaeus] [891] the air, and the motions produced by any of these impulses were carried
[Timaeus] [893] the general name of 'sensations,' which they still retain. And they did in
[Timaeus] [894] fact at that time create a very great and mighty movement; uniting with the
[Timaeus] [895] ever-flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the
[Timaeus] [897] current, and hindered it from predominating and advancing; and they so
[Timaeus] [899] intervals (i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8), and the three triple intervals (i.e.
[Timaeus] [900] between 1, 3, 9, 27), together with the mean terms and connecting links
[Timaeus] [901] which are expressed by the ratios of 3:2, and 4:3, and of 9:8--these,
[Timaeus] [903] twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and
[Timaeus] [905] tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse
[Timaeus] [906] direction, and then again obliquely, and then upside down, as you might
[Timaeus] [907] imagine a person who is upside down and has his head leaning upon the
[Timaeus] [908] ground and his feet up against something in the air; and when he is in such
[Timaeus] [909] a position, both he and the spectator fancy that the right of either is his
[Timaeus] [910] left, and the left right. If, when powerfully experiencing these and
[Timaeus] [913] of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth; and
[Timaeus] [914] they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them
[Timaeus] [915] which has a guiding or directing power; and if again any sensations enter
[Timaeus] [916] in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul,
[Timaeus] [920] And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal
[Timaeus] [922] the flood of growth and nutriment abates, and the courses of the soul,
[Timaeus] [923] calming down, go their own way and become steadier as time goes on, then
[Timaeus] [924] the several circles return to their natural form, and their revolutions are
[Timaeus] [925] corrected, and they call the same and the other by their right names, and
[Timaeus] [926] make the possessor of them to become a rational being. And if these
[Timaeus] [928] and health of the perfect man, and escapes the worst disease of all; but if
[Timaeus] [929] he neglects education he walks lame to the end of his life, and returns
[Timaeus] [930] imperfect and good for nothing to the world below. This, however, is a
[Timaeus] [932] which involves a preliminary enquiry into the generation of the body and
[Timaeus] [933] its members, and as to how the soul was created--for what reason and by
[Timaeus] [934] what providence of the gods; and holding fast to probability, we must
[Timaeus] [939] now term the head, being the most divine part of us and the lord of all
[Timaeus] [942] of motion. In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and
[Timaeus] [943] deep places of the earth, but might be able to get over the one and out of
[Timaeus] [944] the other, they provided the body to be its vehicle and means of
[Timaeus] [945] locomotion; which consequently had length and was furnished with four limbs
[Timaeus] [946] extended and flexible; these God contrived to be instruments of locomotion
[Timaeus] [947] with which it might take hold and find support, and so be able to pass
[Timaeus] [949] and divine part of us. Such was the origin of legs and hands, which for
[Timaeus] [950] this reason were attached to every man; and the gods, deeming the front
[Timaeus] [951] part of man to be more honourable and more fit to command than the hinder
[Timaeus] [953] needs have his front part unlike and distinguished from the rest of his
[Timaeus] [956] And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face in which
[Timaeus] [958] soul, and they appointed this part, which has authority, to be by nature
[Timaeus] [959] the part which is in front. And of the organs they first contrived the
[Timaeus] [960] eyes to give light, and the principle according to which they were inserted
[Timaeus] [963] and the pure fire which is within us and related thereto they made to flow
[Timaeus] [964] through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye,
[Timaeus] [965] and especially the centre part, so that it kept out everything of a coarser
[Timaeus] [966] nature, and allowed to pass only this pure element. When the light of day
[Timaeus] [967] surrounds the stream of vision, then like falls upon like, and they
[Timaeus] [968] coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision,
[Timaeus] [970] And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of
[Timaeus] [973] call sight. But when night comes on and the external and kindred fire
[Timaeus] [975] element it is changed and extinguished, being no longer of one nature with
[Timaeus] [976] the surrounding atmosphere which is now deprived of fire: and so the eye
[Timaeus] [977] no longer sees, and we feel disposed to sleep. For when the eyelids, which
[Timaeus] [979] the internal fire; and the power of the fire diffuses and equalizes the
[Timaeus] [980] inward motions; when they are equalized, there is rest, and when the rest
[Timaeus] [982] greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality,
[Timaeus] [984] when we are awake and in the external world. And now there is no longer
[Timaeus] [985] any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all
[Timaeus] [986] smooth and bright surfaces. For from the communion of the internal and
[Timaeus] [987] external fires, and again from the union of them and their numerous
[Timaeus] [990] the eye on the bright and smooth surface. And right appears left and left
[Timaeus] [993] appears right, and the left left, when the position of one of the two
[Timaeus] [994] concurring lights is reversed; and this happens when the mirror is concave
[Timaeus] [995] and its smooth surface repels the right stream of vision to the left side,
[Timaeus] [996] and the left to the right (He is speaking of two kinds of mirrors, first
[Timaeus] [997] the plane, secondly the concave; and the latter is supposed to be placed,
[Timaeus] [998] first horizontally, and then vertically.). Or if the mirror be turned
[Timaeus] [1000] upside down, and the lower rays are driven upwards and the upper downwards.
[Timaeus] [1002] All these are to be reckoned among the second and co-operative causes which
[Timaeus] [1005] the prime causes of all things, because they freeze and heat, and contract
[Timaeus] [1006] and dilate, and the like. But they are not so, for they are incapable of
[Timaeus] [1008] invisible soul, whereas fire and water, and earth and air, are all of them
[Timaeus] [1009] visible bodies. The lover of intellect and knowledge ought to explore
[Timaeus] [1010] causes of intelligent nature first of all, and, secondly, of those things
[Timaeus] [1011] which, being moved by others, are compelled to move others. And this is
[Timaeus] [1014] and are the workers of things fair and good, and those which are deprived
[Timaeus] [1015] of intelligence and always produce chance effects without order or design.
[Timaeus] [1018] therefore now proceed to speak of the higher use and purpose for which God
[Timaeus] [1020] greatest benefit to us, for had we never seen the stars, and the sun, and
[Timaeus] [1022] ever have been uttered. But now the sight of day and night, and the months
[Timaeus] [1023] and the revolutions of the years, have created number, and have given us a
[Timaeus] [1024] conception of time, and the power of enquiring about the nature of the
[Timaeus] [1025] universe; and from this source we have derived philosophy, than which no
[Timaeus] [1027] the greatest boon of sight: and of the lesser benefits why should I speak?
[Timaeus] [1029] but in vain. Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight
[Timaeus] [1031] and apply them to the courses of our own intelligence which are akin to
[Timaeus] [1032] them, the unperturbed to the perturbed; and that we, learning them and
[Timaeus] [1034] unerring courses of God and regulate our own vagaries. The same may be
[Timaeus] [1035] affirmed of speech and hearing: they have been given by the gods to the
[Timaeus] [1036] same end and for a like reason. For this is the principal end of speech,
[Timaeus] [1038] the sound of the voice and to the sense of hearing is granted to us for the
[Timaeus] [1039] sake of harmony; and harmony, which has motions akin to the revolutions of
[Timaeus] [1043] have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her
[Timaeus] [1044] into harmony and agreement with herself; and rhythm too was given by them
[Timaeus] [1045] for the same reason, on account of the irregular and graceless ways which
[Timaeus] [1046] prevail among mankind generally, and to help us against them.
[Timaeus] [1049] intelligence have been set forth; and now we must place by the side of them
[Timaeus] [1051] the creation is mixed, being made up of necessity and mind. Mind, the
[Timaeus] [1053] things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when
[Timaeus] [1057] well. Wherefore, we must return again and find another suitable beginning,
[Timaeus] [1059] consider the nature of fire, and water, and air, and earth, such as they
[Timaeus] [1060] were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in
[Timaeus] [1062] generation, but we speak of fire and the rest of them, whatever they mean,
[Timaeus] [1063] as though men knew their natures, and we maintain them to be the first
[Timaeus] [1064] principles and letters or elements of the whole, when they cannot
[Timaeus] [1066] compounds. And let me say thus much: I will not now speak of the first
[Timaeus] [1071] be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task. Remembering what I
[Timaeus] [1073] explanation as any other--or rather, more probable; and I will first go
[Timaeus] [1074] back to the beginning and try to speak of each thing and of all. Once
[Timaeus] [1075] more, then, at the commencement of my discourse, I call upon God, and beg
[Timaeus] [1076] him to be our saviour out of a strange and unwonted enquiry, and to bring
[Timaeus] [1082] assumed, was a pattern intelligible and always the same; and the second was
[Timaeus] [1083] only the imitation of the pattern, generated and visible. There is also a
[Timaeus] [1086] set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and
[Timaeus] [1088] reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all
[Timaeus] [1090] language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in
[Timaeus] [1091] particular because I must first raise questions concerning fire and the
[Timaeus] [1092] other elements, and determine what each of them is; for to say, with any
[Timaeus] [1094] fire, and which should be called any of them rather than all or some one of
[Timaeus] [1095] them, is a difficult matter. How, then, shall we settle this point, and
[Timaeus] [1099] condensation, I suppose, becomes stone and earth; and this same element,
[Timaeus] [1100] when melted and dispersed, passes into vapour and air. Air, again, when
[Timaeus] [1101] inflamed, becomes fire; and again fire, when condensed and extinguished,
[Timaeus] [1102] passes once more into the form of air; and once more, air, when collected
[Timaeus] [1103] and condensed, produces cloud and mist; and from these, when still more
[Timaeus] [1104] compressed, comes flowing water, and from water comes earth and stones once
[Timaeus] [1105] more; and thus generation appears to be transmitted from one to the other
[Timaeus] [1114] indicate by the use of the words 'this' and 'that,' supposing ourselves to
[Timaeus] [1119] similar principle circulating in each and all of them; for example, that
[Timaeus] [1120] should be called 'fire' which is of such a nature always, and so of
[Timaeus] [1122] up, and appear, and decay, is alone to be called by the name 'this' or
[Timaeus] [1124] which admits of opposite qualities, and all things that are compounded of
[Timaeus] [1127] figures of gold and to be always transmuting one form into all the rest;--
[Timaeus] [1128] somebody points to one of them and asks what it is. By far the safest and
[Timaeus] [1129] truest answer is, That is gold; and not to call the triangle or any other
[Timaeus] [1132] if the questioner be willing to take the safe and indefinite expression,
[Timaeus] [1133] 'such,' we should be satisfied. And the same argument applies to the
[Timaeus] [1136] own nature, and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that
[Timaeus] [1138] all impressions, and is stirred and informed by them, and appears different
[Timaeus] [1139] from time to time by reason of them. But the forms which enter into and go
[Timaeus] [1141] patterns in a wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter
[Timaeus] [1144] generation takes place; and thirdly, that of which the thing generated is a
[Timaeus] [1145] resemblance. And we may liken the receiving principle to a mother, and the
[Timaeus] [1146] source or spring to a father, and the intermediate nature to a child; and
[Timaeus] [1149] unless it is formless, and free from the impress of any of those shapes
[Timaeus] [1158] making the surface as even and smooth as possible. In the same way that
[Timaeus] [1159] which is to receive perpetually and through its whole extent the
[Timaeus] [1161] form. Wherefore, the mother and receptacle of all created and visible and
[Timaeus] [1164] are derived, but is an invisible and formless being which receives all
[Timaeus] [1165] things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most
[Timaeus] [1169] from time to time is inflamed, and water that which is moistened, and that
[Timaeus] [1170] the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the
[Timaeus] [1174] fire? and do all those things which we call self-existent exist? or are
[Timaeus] [1176] organs, truly existent, and nothing whatever besides them? And is all that
[Timaeus] [1177] which we call an intelligible essence nothing at all, and only a name?
[Timaeus] [1184] Thus I state my view:--If mind and true opinion are two distinct classes,
[Timaeus] [1186] by sense, and apprehended only by the mind; if, however, as some say, true
[Timaeus] [1188] through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain. But we must
[Timaeus] [1189] affirm them to be distinct, for they have a distinct origin and are of a
[Timaeus] [1193] can: and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind
[Timaeus] [1194] is the attribute of the gods and of very few men. Wherefore also we must
[Timaeus] [1196] uncreated and indestructible, never receiving anything into itself from
[Timaeus] [1197] without, nor itself going out to any other, but invisible and imperceptible
[Timaeus] [1198] by any sense, and of which the contemplation is granted to intelligence
[Timaeus] [1199] only. And there is another nature of the same name with it, and like to
[Timaeus] [1200] it, perceived by sense, created, always in motion, becoming in place and
[Timaeus] [1201] again vanishing out of place, which is apprehended by opinion and sense.
[Timaeus] [1202] And there is a third nature, which is space, and is eternal, and admits not
[Timaeus] [1203] of destruction and provides a home for all created things, and is
[Timaeus] [1204] apprehended without the help of sense, by a kind of spurious reason, and is
[Timaeus] [1206] must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is
[Timaeus] [1207] neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence. Of these and other things
[Timaeus] [1208] of the same kind, relating to the true and waking reality of nature, we
[Timaeus] [1209] have only this dreamlike sense, and we are unable to cast off sleep and
[Timaeus] [1211] which it is modelled, does not belong to it, and it exists ever as the
[Timaeus] [1214] But true and exact reason, vindicating the nature of true being, maintains
[Timaeus] [1215] that while two things (i.e. the image and space) are different they cannot
[Timaeus] [1216] exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.
[Timaeus] [1218] Thus have I concisely given the result of my thoughts; and my verdict is
[Timaeus] [1219] that being and space and generation, these three, existed in their three
[Timaeus] [1220] ways before the heaven; and that the nurse of generation, moistened by
[Timaeus] [1221] water and inflamed by fire, and receiving the forms of earth and air, and
[Timaeus] [1223] variety of appearances; and being full of powers which were neither similar
[Timaeus] [1225] swaying unevenly hither and thither, was shaken by them, and by its motion
[Timaeus] [1226] again shook them; and the elements when moved were separated and carried
[Timaeus] [1227] continually, some one way, some another; as, when grain is shaken and
[Timaeus] [1228] winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the
[Timaeus] [1229] close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and
[Timaeus] [1230] the loose and light particles in another. In this manner, the four kinds
[Timaeus] [1233] unlike, and forced the most similar elements into close contact. Wherefore
[Timaeus] [1235] as to form the universe. At first, they were all without reason and
[Timaeus] [1236] measure. But when the world began to get into order, fire and water and
[Timaeus] [1237] earth and air had only certain faint traces of themselves, and were
[Timaeus] [1239] God; this, I say, was their nature at that time, and God fashioned them by
[Timaeus] [1240] form and number. Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we
[Timaeus] [1241] say that God made them as far as possible the fairest and best, out of
[Timaeus] [1242] things which were not fair and good. And now I will endeavour to show you
[Timaeus] [1243] the disposition and generation of them by an unaccustomed argument, which I
[Timaeus] [1247] In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water
[Timaeus] [1248] and air are bodies. And every sort of body possesses solidity, and every
[Timaeus] [1249] solid must necessarily be contained in planes; and every plane rectilinear
[Timaeus] [1250] figure is composed of triangles; and all triangles are originally of two
[Timaeus] [1251] kinds, both of which are made up of one right and two acute angles; one of
[Timaeus] [1256] elements of fire and the other bodies; but the principles which are prior
[Timaeus] [1257] to these God only knows, and he of men who is the friend of God. And next
[Timaeus] [1259] unlike one another, and of which some are capable of resolution into one
[Timaeus] [1261] earth and fire and of the proportionate and intermediate elements. And
[Timaeus] [1264] the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able
[Timaeus] [1268] beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order, and any one who can point out
[Timaeus] [1271] we maintain to be the most beautiful of all the many triangles (and we need
[Timaeus] [1274] disproves what we are saying, and shows that we are mistaken, may claim a
[Timaeus] [1275] friendly victory. Then let us choose two triangles, out of which fire and
[Timaeus] [1281] error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and
[Timaeus] [1287] converse. But three of them can be thus resolved and compounded, for they
[Timaeus] [1288] all spring from one, and when the greater bodies are broken up, many small
[Timaeus] [1289] bodies will spring up out of them and take their own proper figures; or,
[Timaeus] [1293] kinds, and show out of what combinations of numbers each of them was
[Timaeus] [1294] formed. The first will be the simplest and smallest construction, and its
[Timaeus] [1296] When two such triangles are joined at the diagonal, and this is repeated
[Timaeus] [1297] three times, and the triangles rest their diagonals and shorter sides on
[Timaeus] [1299] six triangles; and four equilateral triangles, if put together, make out of
[Timaeus] [1301] the most obtuse of plane angles; and out of the combination of these four
[Timaeus] [1302] angles arises the first solid form which distributes into equal and similar
[Timaeus] [1305] triangles and form one solid angle out of four plane angles, and out of six
[Timaeus] [1306] such angles the second body is completed. And the third body is made up of
[Timaeus] [1313] joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral
[Timaeus] [1323] and ignorant mind. He, however, who raises the question whether they are
[Timaeus] [1331] immoveable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies, and that which
[Timaeus] [1334] by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides; and of the
[Timaeus] [1337] triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this
[Timaeus] [1338] figure to earth, we adhere to probability; and to water we assign that one
[Timaeus] [1339] of the remaining forms which is the least moveable; and the most moveable
[Timaeus] [1340] of them to fire; and to air that which is intermediate. Also we assign the
[Timaeus] [1341] smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in
[Timaeus] [1342] size to air; and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in
[Timaeus] [1343] acuteness to air, and the third to water. Of all these elements, that
[Timaeus] [1345] must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the
[Timaeus] [1347] and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the
[Timaeus] [1349] strict reason and according to probability, that the pyramid is the solid
[Timaeus] [1350] which is the original element and seed of fire; and let us assign the
[Timaeus] [1351] element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to
[Timaeus] [1354] when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen. And
[Timaeus] [1355] the ratios of their numbers, motions, and other properties, everywhere God,
[Timaeus] [1356] as far as necessity allowed or gave consent, has exactly perfected, and
[Timaeus] [1360] most probable conclusion is as follows:--earth, when meeting with fire and
[Timaeus] [1362] itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and
[Timaeus] [1363] thither, until its parts, meeting together and mutually harmonising, again
[Timaeus] [1365] divided by fire or by air, on re-forming, may become one part fire and two
[Timaeus] [1366] parts air; and a single volume of air divided becomes two of fire. Again,
[Timaeus] [1368] earth, and both are moving, and the fire struggling is overcome and broken
[Timaeus] [1369] up, then two volumes of fire form one volume of air; and when air is
[Timaeus] [1370] overcome and cut up into small pieces, two and a half parts of air are
[Timaeus] [1372] way. When one of the other elements is fastened upon by fire, and is cut
[Timaeus] [1373] by the sharpness of its angles and sides, it coalesces with the fire, and
[Timaeus] [1374] then ceases to be cut by them any longer. For no element which is one and
[Timaeus] [1376] and in the same state. But so long as in the process of transition the
[Timaeus] [1379] decomposition and extinction, they only cease from their tendency to
[Timaeus] [1380] extinction when they consent to pass into the conquering nature, and fire
[Timaeus] [1381] becomes air and air water. But if bodies of another kind go and attack
[Timaeus] [1383] being completely forced back and dispersed, they make their escape to their
[Timaeus] [1384] own kindred, or else, being overcome and assimilated to the conquering
[Timaeus] [1385] power, they remain where they are and dwell with their victors, and from
[Timaeus] [1386] being many become one. And owing to these affections, all things are
[Timaeus] [1389] become unlike themselves and like other things, are hurried by the shaking
[Timaeus] [1392] Now all unmixed and primary bodies are produced by such causes as these.
[Timaeus] [1396] one size only, but some larger and some smaller, and there are as many
[Timaeus] [1398] mingled with themselves and with one another there is an endless variety of
[Timaeus] [1402] Unless a person comes to an understanding about the nature and conditions
[Timaeus] [1403] of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion
[Timaeus] [1404] which follows. Something has been said of this matter already, and
[Timaeus] [1407] mover is hard or indeed impossible, and equally impossible to conceive that
[Timaeus] [1409] cannot exist where either of these are wanting, and for these to be uniform
[Timaeus] [1410] is impossible; wherefore we must assign rest to uniformity and motion to
[Timaeus] [1412] wanting in uniformity; and of this we have already described the origin.
[Timaeus] [1414] their kinds do not cease to pass through one another and to change their
[Timaeus] [1416] universe are comprehended all the four elements, and this being circular
[Timaeus] [1417] and having a tendency to come together, compresses everything and will not
[Timaeus] [1419] penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the
[Timaeus] [1420] elements; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to
[Timaeus] [1422] largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and
[Timaeus] [1423] those which are composed of the smallest particles have the least. And the
[Timaeus] [1425] the interstices of the larger. And thus, when the small parts are placed
[Timaeus] [1426] side by side with the larger, and the lesser divide the greater and the
[Timaeus] [1427] greater unite the lesser, all the elements are borne up and down and hither
[Timaeus] [1428] and thither towards their own places; for the change in the size of each
[Timaeus] [1429] changes its position in space. And these causes generate an inequality
[Timaeus] [1430] which is always maintained, and is continually creating a perpetual motion
[Timaeus] [1434] There are, for example, first, flame; and secondly, those emanations of
[Timaeus] [1438] brightest part is called the aether, and the most turbid sort mist and
[Timaeus] [1439] darkness; and there are various other nameless kinds which arise from the
[Timaeus] [1441] division into two kinds; the one liquid and the other fusile. The liquid
[Timaeus] [1442] kind is composed of the small and unequal particles of water; and moves
[Timaeus] [1443] itself and is moved by other bodies owing to the want of uniformity and the
[Timaeus] [1444] shape of its particles; whereas the fusile kind, being formed of large and
[Timaeus] [1445] uniform particles, is more stable than the other, and is heavy and compact
[Timaeus] [1446] by reason of its uniformity. But when fire gets in and dissolves the
[Timaeus] [1447] particles and destroys the uniformity, it has greater mobility, and
[Timaeus] [1448] becoming fluid is thrust forth by the neighbouring air and spreads upon the
[Timaeus] [1449] earth; and this dissolution of the solid masses is called melting, and
[Timaeus] [1452] neighbouring air; and the air which is displaced forces together the liquid
[Timaeus] [1453] and still moveable mass into the place which was occupied by the fire, and
[Timaeus] [1455] and is again at unity with itself, because the fire which was the author of
[Timaeus] [1456] the inequality has retreated; and this departure of the fire is called
[Timaeus] [1457] cooling, and the coming together which follows upon it is termed
[Timaeus] [1458] congealment. Of all the kinds termed fusile, that which is the densest and
[Timaeus] [1459] is formed out of the finest and most uniform parts is that most precious
[Timaeus] [1461] is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour. A shoot
[Timaeus] [1462] of gold, which is so dense as to be very hard, and takes a black colour, is
[Timaeus] [1464] gold, and of which there are several species; it is denser than gold, and
[Timaeus] [1465] it contains a small and fine portion of earth, and is therefore harder, yet
[Timaeus] [1467] and this substance, which is one of the bright and denser kinds of water,
[Timaeus] [1469] it, which, when the two parts grow old and are disunited, shows itself
[Timaeus] [1470] separately and is called rust. The remaining phenomena of the same kind
[Timaeus] [1473] things, and for recreation turn to consider the truths of generation which
[Timaeus] [1474] are probable only; he will thus gain a pleasure not to be repented of, and
[Timaeus] [1475] secure for himself while he lives a wise and moderate pastime. Let us
[Timaeus] [1476] grant ourselves this indulgence, and go through the probabilities relating
[Timaeus] [1479] Water which is mingled with fire, so much as is fine and liquid (being so
[Timaeus] [1480] called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the
[Timaeus] [1481] ground), and soft, because its bases give way and are less stable than
[Timaeus] [1482] those of earth, when separated from fire and air and isolated, becomes more
[Timaeus] [1483] uniform, and by their retirement is compressed into itself; and if the
[Timaeus] [1485] the earth, ice; and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only
[Timaeus] [1486] half solid, when above the earth is called snow, and when upon the earth,
[Timaeus] [1487] and condensed from dew, hoar-frost. Then, again, there are the numerous
[Timaeus] [1488] kinds of water which have been mingled with one another, and are distilled
[Timaeus] [1489] through plants which grow in the earth; and this whole class is called by
[Timaeus] [1492] fiery nature are clearly distinguished and have names. First, there is
[Timaeus] [1494] oily nature, which is smooth and divides the visual ray, and for this
[Timaeus] [1495] reason is bright and shining and of a glistening appearance, including
[Timaeus] [1496] pitch, the juice of the castor berry, oil itself, and other things of a
[Timaeus] [1499] and by reason of this property create sweetness;--these are included under
[Timaeus] [1500] the general name of honey: and, lastly, there is a frothy nature, which
[Timaeus] [1505] stone in the following manner:--The water which mixes with the earth and is
[Timaeus] [1506] broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into
[Timaeus] [1508] neighbouring air, and this being rendered heavy, and, when it is displaced,
[Timaeus] [1509] having been poured around the mass of earth, forcibly compresses it and
[Timaeus] [1510] drives it into the vacant space whence the new air had come up; and the
[Timaeus] [1512] becomes rock. The fairer sort is that which is made up of equal and
[Timaeus] [1513] similar parts and is transparent; that which has the opposite qualities is
[Timaeus] [1516] Sometimes also moisture may remain, and the earth which has been fused by
[Timaeus] [1519] occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny
[Timaeus] [1521] water--the one, soda, which is used for purging away oil and earth, the
[Timaeus] [1523] palate, and is, as the law testifies, a substance dear to the gods. The
[Timaeus] [1524] compounds of earth and water are not soluble by water, but by fire only,
[Timaeus] [1525] and for this reason:--Neither fire nor air melt masses of earth; for their
[Timaeus] [1527] of room to move without forcing their way, and so they leave the earth
[Timaeus] [1528] unmelted and undissolved; but particles of water, which are larger, force a
[Timaeus] [1529] passage, and dissolve and melt the earth. Wherefore earth when not
[Timaeus] [1534] interstices, and the latter penetrating even the triangles. But nothing
[Timaeus] [1537] dissolve it. As to bodies composed of earth and water, while the water
[Timaeus] [1540] no entrance, flow around the entire mass and leave it undissolved; but the
[Timaeus] [1542] water what water does to earth and fire to air (The text seems to be
[Timaeus] [1543] corrupt.), and are the sole causes of the compound body of earth and water
[Timaeus] [1544] liquefying and becoming fluid. Now these bodies are of two kinds; some of
[Timaeus] [1545] them, such as glass and the fusible sort of stones, have less water than
[Timaeus] [1546] they have earth; on the other hand, substances of the nature of wax and
[Timaeus] [1550] their forms and combinations and changes into one another, and now I must
[Timaeus] [1551] endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them. In the
[Timaeus] [1554] what belongs to flesh, or of that part of the soul which is mortal. And
[Timaeus] [1557] former: and yet to explain them together is hardly possible; for which
[Timaeus] [1558] reason we must assume first one or the other and afterwards examine the
[Timaeus] [1560] regularly after the elements, let us presuppose the existence of body and
[Timaeus] [1563] First, let us enquire what we mean by saying that fire is hot; and about
[Timaeus] [1565] our bodies. We all of us feel that fire is sharp; and we may further
[Timaeus] [1566] consider the fineness of the sides, and the sharpness of the angles, and
[Timaeus] [1567] the smallness of the particles, and the swiftness of the motion--all this
[Timaeus] [1568] makes the action of fire violent and sharp, so that it cuts whatever it
[Timaeus] [1569] meets. And we must not forget that the original figure of fire (i.e. the
[Timaeus] [1571] bodies into small pieces (Kepmatizei), and thus naturally produces that
[Timaeus] [1572] affection which we call heat; and hence the origin of the name (thepmos,
[Timaeus] [1575] which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not
[Timaeus] [1576] being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us; and
[Timaeus] [1577] this from being unequal and disturbed, is forced by them into a state of
[Timaeus] [1578] rest, which is due to equability and compression. But things which are
[Timaeus] [1579] contracted contrary to nature are by nature at war, and force themselves
[Timaeus] [1580] apart; and to this war and convulsion the name of shivering and trembling
[Timaeus] [1581] is given; and the whole affection and the cause of the affection are both
[Timaeus] [1582] termed cold. That is called hard to which our flesh yields, and soft which
[Timaeus] [1583] yields to our flesh; and things are also termed hard and soft relatively to
[Timaeus] [1585] quadrangular bases is firmly posed and belongs to the class which offers
[Timaeus] [1586] the greatest resistance; so too does that which is the most compact and
[Timaeus] [1587] therefore most repellent. The nature of the light and the heavy will be
[Timaeus] [1588] best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and
[Timaeus] [1590] into two regions, separate from and opposite to each other, the one a lower
[Timaeus] [1591] to which all things tend which have any bulk, and an upper to which things
[Timaeus] [1594] extremities, and the centre, which is equidistant from them, is equally to
[Timaeus] [1599] centre and nothing else; and the circumference is not the centre, and has
[Timaeus] [1605] they are all perfectly similar; and if a person were to go round the world
[Timaeus] [1607] position, speak of the same point as above and below; for, as I was saying
[Timaeus] [1609] one part above and another below is not like a sensible man. The reason
[Timaeus] [1610] why these names are used, and the circumstances under which they are
[Timaeus] [1613] the universe which is the appointed place of fire, and where there is the
[Timaeus] [1615] ascend thither, and, having the power to do this, were to abstract
[Timaeus] [1616] particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them, and then, raising
[Timaeus] [1620] by one and the same power, the smaller body must necessarily yield to the
[Timaeus] [1621] superior power with less reluctance than the larger; and the larger body is
[Timaeus] [1622] called heavy and said to tend downwards, and the smaller body is called
[Timaeus] [1623] light and said to tend upwards. And we may detect ourselves who are upon
[Timaeus] [1625] natures, and sometimes earth itself, and draw them into the uncongenial
[Timaeus] [1626] element of air by force and contrary to nature, both clinging to their
[Timaeus] [1628] us towards the dissimilar element more easily than the larger; and so we
[Timaeus] [1629] call the former light, and the place towards which it is impelled we call
[Timaeus] [1630] above, and the contrary state and place we call heavy and below
[Timaeus] [1634] and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to
[Timaeus] [1635] that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place. And about
[Timaeus] [1637] its kindred element makes the body which is moved heavy, and the place
[Timaeus] [1640] to these phenomena. As to the smooth and the rough, any one who sees them
[Timaeus] [1642] mingled with irregularity, and smoothness is produced by the joint effect
[Timaeus] [1643] of uniformity and density.
[Timaeus] [1646] to be considered--that is, the cause of pleasure and pain in the
[Timaeus] [1647] perceptions of which I have been speaking, and in all other things which
[Timaeus] [1648] are perceived by sense through the parts of the body, and have both pains
[Timaeus] [1649] and pleasures attendant on them. Let us imagine the causes of every
[Timaeus] [1652] easy and which is hard to move; for this is the direction in which we must
[Timaeus] [1657] But a body of the opposite kind, being immobile, and not extending to the
[Timaeus] [1658] surrounding region, merely receives the impression, and does not stir any
[Timaeus] [1659] of the neighbouring parts; and since the parts do not distribute the
[Timaeus] [1661] animal, and therefore produces no effect on the patient. This is true of
[Timaeus] [1662] the bones and hair and other more earthy parts of the human body; whereas
[Timaeus] [1663] what was said above relates mainly to sight and hearing, because they have
[Timaeus] [1664] in them the greatest amount of fire and air. Now we must conceive of
[Timaeus] [1665] pleasure and pain in this way. An impression produced in us contrary to
[Timaeus] [1666] nature and violent, if sudden, is painful; and, again, the sudden return to
[Timaeus] [1667] nature is pleasant; but a gentle and gradual return is imperceptible and
[Timaeus] [1672] cuttings and burnings and other affections which happen to the sight do not
[Timaeus] [1674] state; but the sensations are clearest and strongest according to the
[Timaeus] [1675] manner in which the eye is affected by the object, and itself strikes and
[Timaeus] [1678] with a struggle; and then they impart their motions to the whole and cause
[Timaeus] [1679] pleasure and pain--pain when alienated from their natural conditions, and
[Timaeus] [1681] withdrawings and emptyings of their nature, and great and sudden
[Timaeus] [1683] replenishment; and so they occasion no pain, but the greatest pleasure, to
[Timaeus] [1685] things which are changed all of a sudden, and only gradually and with
[Timaeus] [1687] to the former, as is evident in the case of burnings and cuttings of the
[Timaeus] [1690] Thus have we discussed the general affections of the whole body, and the
[Timaeus] [1691] names of the agents which produce them. And now I will endeavour to speak
[Timaeus] [1692] of the affections of particular parts, and the causes and agents of them,
[Timaeus] [1696] by certain contractions and dilations, but they have besides more of
[Timaeus] [1697] roughness and smoothness than is found in other affections; for whenever
[Timaeus] [1699] instruments of the tongue, reaching to the heart, and fall upon the moist,
[Timaeus] [1700] delicate portions of flesh--when, as they are dissolved, they contract and
[Timaeus] [1703] nature, and purge the whole surface of the tongue, if they do it in excess,
[Timaeus] [1704] and so encroach as to consume some part of the flesh itself, like potash
[Timaeus] [1705] and soda, are all termed bitter. But the particles which are deficient in
[Timaeus] [1706] the alkaline quality, and which cleanse only moderately, are called salt,
[Timaeus] [1707] and having no bitterness or roughness, are regarded as rather agreeable
[Timaeus] [1708] than otherwise. Bodies which share in and are made smooth by the heat of
[Timaeus] [1709] the mouth, and which are inflamed, and again in turn inflame that which
[Timaeus] [1710] heats them, and which are so light that they are carried upwards to the
[Timaeus] [1711] sensations of the head, and cut all that comes in their way, by reason of
[Timaeus] [1713] particles, refined by putrefaction, enter into the narrow veins, and are
[Timaeus] [1714] duly proportioned to the particles of earth and air which are there, they
[Timaeus] [1715] set them whirling about one another, and while they are in a whirl cause
[Timaeus] [1716] them to dash against and enter into one another, and so form hollows
[Timaeus] [1719] air) are hollow spheres of water; and those of them which are pure, are
[Timaeus] [1720] transparent, and are called bubbles, while those composed of the earthy
[Timaeus] [1721] liquid, which is in a state of general agitation and effervescence, are
[Timaeus] [1723] And there is the opposite affection arising from an opposite cause, when
[Timaeus] [1725] congenial to the tongue, and smooths and oils over the roughness, and
[Timaeus] [1726] relaxes the parts which are unnaturally contracted, and contracts the parts
[Timaeus] [1727] which are relaxed, and disposes them all according to their nature;--that
[Timaeus] [1728] sort of remedy of violent affections is pleasant and agreeable to every
[Timaeus] [1729] man, and has the name sweet. But enough of this.
[Timaeus] [1732] are of a half-formed nature, and no element is so proportioned as to have
[Timaeus] [1733] any smell. The veins about the nose are too narrow to admit earth and
[Timaeus] [1734] water, and too wide to detain fire and air; and for this reason no one ever
[Timaeus] [1736] that are damp, or putrefying, or liquefying, or evaporating, and are
[Timaeus] [1738] and air into water; and all of them are either vapour or mist. That which
[Timaeus] [1739] is passing out of air into water is mist, and that which is passing from
[Timaeus] [1740] water into air is vapour; and hence all smells are thinner than water and
[Timaeus] [1742] to the respiration, and a man draws in his breath by force, then no smell
[Timaeus] [1744] the varieties of smell have no name, and they have not many, or definite
[Timaeus] [1745] and simple kinds; but they are distinguished only as painful and pleasant,
[Timaeus] [1746] the one sort irritating and disturbing the whole cavity which is situated
[Timaeus] [1747] between the head and the navel, the other having a soothing influence, and
[Timaeus] [1748] restoring this same region to an agreeable and natural condition.
[Timaeus] [1752] which passes through the ears, and is transmitted by means of the air, the
[Timaeus] [1753] brain, and the blood, to the soul, and that hearing is the vibration of
[Timaeus] [1754] this blow, which begins in the head and ends in the region of the liver.
[Timaeus] [1755] The sound which moves swiftly is acute, and the sound which moves slowly is
[Timaeus] [1756] grave, and that which is regular is equable and smooth, and the reverse is
[Timaeus] [1757] harsh. A great body of sound is loud, and a small body of sound the
[Timaeus] [1762] name of colours, and are a flame which emanates from every sort of body,
[Timaeus] [1763] and has particles corresponding to the sense of sight. I have spoken
[Timaeus] [1764] already, in what has preceded, of the causes which generate sight, and in
[Timaeus] [1765] this place it will be natural and suitable to give a rational theory of
[Timaeus] [1769] are smaller and some are larger, and some are equal to the parts of the
[Timaeus] [1770] sight itself. Those which are equal are imperceptible, and we call them
[Timaeus] [1772] sight, exercising a power akin to that of hot and cold bodies on the flesh,
[Timaeus] [1774] termed pungent. White and black are similar effects of contraction and
[Timaeus] [1775] dilation in another sphere, and for this reason have a different
[Timaeus] [1777] visual ray, and the opposite of this is black. There is also a swifter
[Timaeus] [1778] motion of a different sort of fire which strikes and dilates the ray of
[Timaeus] [1779] sight until it reaches the eyes, forcing a way through their passages and
[Timaeus] [1780] melting them, and eliciting from them a union of fire and water which we
[Timaeus] [1782] opposite direction--the inner fire flashes forth like lightning, and the
[Timaeus] [1783] outer finds a way in and is extinguished in the moisture, and all sorts of
[Timaeus] [1785] and the object which produces it is called bright and flashing. There is
[Timaeus] [1786] another sort of fire which is intermediate, and which reaches and mingles
[Timaeus] [1787] with the moisture of the eye without flashing; and in this, the fire
[Timaeus] [1789] which we give the name of red. A bright hue mingled with red and white
[Timaeus] [1794] mingled with black and white, becomes purple, but it becomes umber (Greek)
[Timaeus] [1795] when the colours are burnt as well as mingled and the black is more
[Timaeus] [1797] auburn and dun (Greek), and dun by an admixture of black and white; pale
[Timaeus] [1798] yellow (Greek), by an admixture of white and auburn. White and bright
[Timaeus] [1799] meeting, and falling upon a full black, become dark blue (Greek), and when
[Timaeus] [1802] difficulty in seeing how and by what mixtures the colours derived from
[Timaeus] [1805] difference of the human and divine nature. For God only has the knowledge
[Timaeus] [1806] and also the power which are able to combine many things into one and again
[Timaeus] [1811] creator of the fairest and best of created things associated with himself,
[Timaeus] [1812] when he made the self-sufficing and most perfect God, using the necessary
[Timaeus] [1815] sorts of causes, the one divine and the other necessary, and may seek for
[Timaeus] [1818] considering that without them and when isolated from them, these higher
[Timaeus] [1825] in a few words to the point at which we began, and then endeavour to add on
[Timaeus] [1829] thing in relation to itself, and in all things in relation to each other,
[Timaeus] [1830] all the measures and harmonies which they could possibly receive. For in
[Timaeus] [1833] example, fire, water, and the rest of the elements. All these the creator
[Timaeus] [1834] first set in order, and out of them he constructed the universe, which was
[Timaeus] [1835] a single animal comprehending in itself all other animals, mortal and
[Timaeus] [1837] of the mortal he committed to his offspring. And they, imitating him,
[Timaeus] [1838] received from him the immortal principle of the soul; and around this they
[Timaeus] [1839] proceeded to fashion a mortal body, and made it to be the vehicle of the
[Timaeus] [1840] soul, and constructed within the body a soul of another nature which was
[Timaeus] [1841] mortal, subject to terrible and irresistible affections,--first of all,
[Timaeus] [1843] good; also rashness and fear, two foolish counsellors, anger hard to be
[Timaeus] [1844] appeased, and hope easily led astray;--these they mingled with irrational
[Timaeus] [1845] sense and with all-daring love according to necessary laws, and so framed
[Timaeus] [1849] and boundary, which they constructed between the head and breast, to keep
[Timaeus] [1850] them apart. And in the breast, and in what is termed the thorax, they
[Timaeus] [1851] encased the mortal soul; and as the one part of this was superior and the
[Timaeus] [1853] women's and men's apartments are divided in houses, and placed the midriff
[Timaeus] [1855] which is endowed with courage and passion and loves contention they settled
[Timaeus] [1856] nearer the head, midway between the midriff and the neck, in order that it
[Timaeus] [1857] might be under the rule of reason and might join with it in controlling and
[Timaeus] [1861] The heart, the knot of the veins and the fountain of the blood which races
[Timaeus] [1865] whole power of feeling in the body, perceiving these commands and threats,
[Timaeus] [1866] might obey and follow through every turn and alley, and thus allow the
[Timaeus] [1869] and the swelling and excitement of passion was caused by fire, formed and
[Timaeus] [1871] place, soft and bloodless, and also had within hollows like the pores of a
[Timaeus] [1872] sponge, in order that by receiving the breath and the drink, it might give
[Timaeus] [1873] coolness and the power of respiration and alleviate the heat. Wherefore
[Timaeus] [1874] they cut the air-channels leading to the lung, and placed the lung about
[Timaeus] [1876] beating against a yielding body, might be cooled and suffer less, and might
[Timaeus] [1879] The part of the soul which desires meats and drinks and the other things of
[Timaeus] [1881] midriff and the boundary of the navel, contriving in all this region a sort
[Timaeus] [1882] of manger for the food of the body; and there they bound it down like a
[Timaeus] [1883] wild animal which was chained up with man, and must be nourished if man was
[Timaeus] [1885] he might be always feeding at the manger, and have his dwelling as far as
[Timaeus] [1886] might be from the council-chamber, making as little noise and disturbance
[Timaeus] [1887] as possible, and permitting the best part to advise quietly for the good of
[Timaeus] [1888] the whole. And knowing that this lower principle in man would not
[Timaeus] [1889] comprehend reason, and even if attaining to some degree of perception would
[Timaeus] [1891] phantoms and visions night and day,--to be a remedy for this, God combined
[Timaeus] [1892] with it the liver, and placed it in the house of the lower nature,
[Timaeus] [1893] contriving that it should be solid and smooth, and bright and sweet, and
[Timaeus] [1896] receives likenesses of objects and gives back images of them to the sight;
[Timaeus] [1897] and so might strike terror into the desires, when, making use of the bitter
[Timaeus] [1898] part of the liver, to which it is akin, it comes threatening and invading,
[Timaeus] [1899] and diffusing this bitter element swiftly through the whole liver produces
[Timaeus] [1900] colours like bile, and contracting every part makes it wrinkled and rough;
[Timaeus] [1901] and twisting out of its right place and contorting the lobe and closing and
[Timaeus] [1902] shutting up the vessels and gates, causes pain and loathing. And the
[Timaeus] [1904] images of an opposite character, and allays the bile and bitterness by
[Timaeus] [1906] of the natural sweetness of the liver, corrects all things and makes them
[Timaeus] [1907] to be right and smooth and free, and renders the portion of the soul which
[Timaeus] [1908] resides about the liver happy and joyful, enabling it to pass the night in
[Timaeus] [1909] peace, and to practise divination in sleep, inasmuch as it has no share in
[Timaeus] [1910] mind and reason. For the authors of our being, remembering the command of
[Timaeus] [1912] that they might correct our inferior parts and make them to attain a
[Timaeus] [1913] measure of truth, placed in the liver the seat of divination. And herein
[Timaeus] [1916] truth and inspiration; but when he receives the inspired word, either his
[Timaeus] [1918] possession. And he who would understand what he remembers to have been
[Timaeus] [1919] said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic and
[Timaeus] [1921] apparitions which he has seen, and what indications they afford to this man
[Timaeus] [1922] or that, of past, present or future good and evil, must first recover his
[Timaeus] [1925] true, that 'only a man who has his wits can act or judge about himself and
[Timaeus] [1926] his own affairs.' And for this reason it is customary to appoint
[Timaeus] [1929] sayings and visions, and are not to be called prophets at all, but only
[Timaeus] [1935] becomes blind, and delivers oracles too obscure to be intelligible. The
[Timaeus] [1936] neighbouring organ (the spleen) is situated on the left-hand side, and is
[Timaeus] [1937] constructed with a view of keeping the liver bright and pure,--like a
[Timaeus] [1938] napkin, always ready prepared and at hand to clean the mirror. And hence,
[Timaeus] [1941] and bloodless tissue, receives them all and clears them away, and when
[Timaeus] [1942] filled with the unclean matter, swells and festers, but, again, when the
[Timaeus] [1943] body is purged, settles down into the same place as before, and is humbled.
[Timaeus] [1945] Concerning the soul, as to which part is mortal and which divine, and how
[Timaeus] [1946] and why they are separated, and where located, if God acknowledges that we
[Timaeus] [1947] have spoken the truth, then, and then only, can we be confident; still, we
[Timaeus] [1948] may venture to assert that what has been said by us is probable, and will
[Timaeus] [1951] The creation of the rest of the body follows next in order, and this we may
[Timaeus] [1952] investigate in a similar manner. And it appears to be very meet that the
[Timaeus] [1956] and drinking, and take a good deal more than was necessary or proper, by
[Timaeus] [1958] us, and lest our mortal race should perish without fulfilling its end--
[Timaeus] [1960] belly, to be a receptacle for the superfluous meat and drink, and formed
[Timaeus] [1962] passing quickly through and compelling the body to require more food, thus
[Timaeus] [1963] producing insatiable gluttony, and making the whole race an enemy to
[Timaeus] [1964] philosophy and music, and rebellious against the divinest element within
[Timaeus] [1967] The bones and flesh, and other similar parts of us, were made as follows.
[Timaeus] [1970] and they are the root and foundation of the human race. The marrow itself
[Timaeus] [1972] as were straight and smooth, and were adapted by their perfection to
[Timaeus] [1973] produce fire and water, and air and earth--these, I say, he separated from
[Timaeus] [1974] their kinds, and mingling them in due proportions with one another, made
[Timaeus] [1976] and in this seed he then planted and enclosed the souls, and in the
[Timaeus] [1977] original distribution gave to the marrow as many and various forms as the
[Timaeus] [1979] field, was to receive the divine seed, he made round every way, and called
[Timaeus] [1982] that which was intended to contain the remaining and mortal part of the
[Timaeus] [1983] soul he distributed into figures at once round and elongated, and he called
[Timaeus] [1984] them all by the name 'marrow'; and to these, as to anchors, fastening the
[Timaeus] [1989] Bone was composed by him in the following manner. Having sifted pure and
[Timaeus] [1990] smooth earth he kneaded it and wetted it with marrow, and after that he put
[Timaeus] [1991] it into fire and then into water, and once more into fire and again into
[Timaeus] [1994] of bone, which he placed around the brain, and in this he left a narrow
[Timaeus] [1995] opening; and around the marrow of the neck and back he formed vertebrae
[Timaeus] [1996] which he placed under one another like pivots, beginning at the head and
[Timaeus] [1998] entire seed, he enclosed it in a stone-like casing, inserting joints, and
[Timaeus] [2000] intermediate nature, that they might have motion and flexure. Then again,
[Timaeus] [2001] considering that the bone would be too brittle and inflexible, and when
[Timaeus] [2002] heated and again cooled would soon mortify and destroy the seed within--
[Timaeus] [2003] having this in view, he contrived the sinews and the flesh, that so binding
[Timaeus] [2005] and relaxed about the vertebrae, he might thus make the body capable of
[Timaeus] [2006] flexion and extension, while the flesh would serve as a protection against
[Timaeus] [2007] the summer heat and against the winter cold, and also against falls, softly
[Timaeus] [2008] and easily yielding to external bodies, like articles made of felt; and
[Timaeus] [2009] containing in itself a warm moisture which in summer exudes and makes the
[Timaeus] [2010] surface damp, would impart a natural coolness to the whole body; and again
[Timaeus] [2012] defence against the frost which surrounds it and attacks it from without.
[Timaeus] [2013] He who modelled us, considering these things, mixed earth with fire and
[Timaeus] [2014] water and blended them; and making a ferment of acid and salt, he mingled
[Timaeus] [2015] it with them and formed soft and succulent flesh. As for the sinews, he
[Timaeus] [2016] made them of a mixture of bone and unfermented flesh, attempered so as to
[Timaeus] [2017] be in a mean, and gave them a yellow colour; wherefore the sinews have a
[Timaeus] [2018] firmer and more glutinous nature than flesh, but a softer and moister
[Timaeus] [2019] nature than the bones. With these God covered the bones and marrow,
[Timaeus] [2020] binding them together by sinews, and then enshrouded them all in an upper
[Timaeus] [2021] covering of flesh. The more living and sensitive of the bones he enclosed
[Timaeus] [2022] in the thinnest film of flesh, and those which had the least life within
[Timaeus] [2023] them in the thickest and most solid flesh. So again on the joints of the
[Timaeus] [2026] bodies and make them unwieldy because difficult to move; and also that it
[Timaeus] [2027] might not, by being crowded and pressed and matted together, destroy
[Timaeus] [2028] sensation by reason of its hardness, and impair the memory and dull the
[Timaeus] [2029] edge of intelligence. Wherefore also the thighs and the shanks and the
[Timaeus] [2030] hips, and the bones of the arms and the forearms, and other parts which
[Timaeus] [2031] have no joints, and the inner bones, which on account of the rarity of the
[Timaeus] [2036] is not the case. For the nature which comes into being and grows up in us
[Timaeus] [2037] by a law of necessity, does not admit of the combination of solid bone and
[Timaeus] [2039] of the head would have had them, if they could have co-existed, and the
[Timaeus] [2040] human race, having a strong and fleshy and sinewy head, would have had a
[Timaeus] [2041] life twice or many times as long as it now has, and also more healthy and
[Timaeus] [2045] span of life, which was better, to a longer one, which was worse; and
[Timaeus] [2046] therefore they covered the head with thin bone, but not with flesh and
[Timaeus] [2047] sinews, since it had no joints; and thus the head was added, having more
[Timaeus] [2048] wisdom and sensation than the rest of the body, but also being in every man
[Timaeus] [2049] far weaker. For these reasons and after this manner God placed the sinews
[Timaeus] [2050] at the extremity of the head, in a circle round the neck, and glued them
[Timaeus] [2051] together by the principle of likeness and fastened the extremities of the
[Timaeus] [2052] jawbones to them below the face, and the other sinews he dispersed
[Timaeus] [2054] mouth, as now arranged, having teeth and tongue and lips, with a view to
[Timaeus] [2055] the necessary and the good contriving the way in for necessary purposes,
[Timaeus] [2057] and gives food to the body; but the river of speech, which flows out of a
[Timaeus] [2058] man and ministers to the intelligence, is the fairest and noblest of all
[Timaeus] [2060] account of the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons, nor yet
[Timaeus] [2061] be allowed to be wholly covered, and so become dull and senseless by reason
[Timaeus] [2063] dried up, but a large sort of peel was parted off and remained over, which
[Timaeus] [2064] is now called the skin. This met and grew by the help of the cerebral
[Timaeus] [2065] moisture, and became the circular envelopment of the head. And the
[Timaeus] [2066] moisture, rising up under the sutures, watered and closed in the skin upon
[Timaeus] [2068] by the power of the courses of the soul and of the food, and the more these
[Timaeus] [2069] struggled against one another the more numerous they became, and fewer if
[Timaeus] [2071] round with fire, and out of the punctures which were thus made the moisture
[Timaeus] [2072] issued forth, and the liquid and heat which was pure came away, and a mixed
[Timaeus] [2073] part which was composed of the same material as the skin, and had a
[Timaeus] [2074] fineness equal to the punctures, was borne up by its own impulse and
[Timaeus] [2076] back by the external air, and rolled up underneath the skin, where it took
[Timaeus] [2078] like threads of leather, but rendered harder and closer through the
[Timaeus] [2080] from the skin, is compressed and cooled. Wherefore the creator formed the
[Timaeus] [2081] head hairy, making use of the causes which I have mentioned, and reflecting
[Timaeus] [2083] or guard, which would give shade in summer and shelter in winter, and at
[Timaeus] [2085] combination of sinew, skin, and bone, in the structure of the finger, there
[Timaeus] [2087] skin partaking of all three natures, and was fabricated by these second
[Timaeus] [2089] the future. For our creators well knew that women and other animals would
[Timaeus] [2090] some day be framed out of men, and they further knew that many animals
[Timaeus] [2093] and for these reasons they caused skin, hair, and nails to grow at the
[Timaeus] [2096] And now that all the parts and members of the mortal animal had come
[Timaeus] [2097] together, since its life of necessity consisted of fire and breath, and it
[Timaeus] [2098] therefore wasted away by dissolution and depletion, the gods contrived the
[Timaeus] [2100] forms and perceptions, and thus created another kind of animal. These are
[Timaeus] [2101] the trees and plants and seeds which have been improved by cultivation and
[Timaeus] [2104] may be truly called a living being, and the animal of which we are now
[Timaeus] [2106] between the midriff and the navel, having no part in opinion or reason or
[Timaeus] [2107] mind, but only in feelings of pleasure and pain and the desires which
[Timaeus] [2109] and about itself, repelling the motion from without and using its own, and
[Timaeus] [2111] reflecting on its own concerns. Wherefore it lives and does not differ
[Timaeus] [2112] from a living being, but is fixed and rooted in the same spot, having no
[Timaeus] [2119] back where the skin and the flesh join, which answered severally to the
[Timaeus] [2120] right and left side of the body. These they let down along the backbone,
[Timaeus] [2122] likely to flourish, and in order that the stream coming down from above
[Timaeus] [2123] might flow freely to the other parts, and equalize the irrigation. In the
[Timaeus] [2124] next place, they divided the veins about the head, and interlacing them,
[Timaeus] [2126] they sent to the left of the body, and those from the left they diverted
[Timaeus] [2127] towards the right, so that they and the skin might together form a bond
[Timaeus] [2129] not encircled by sinews; and also in order that the sensations from both
[Timaeus] [2130] sides might be distributed over the whole body. And next, they ordered the
[Timaeus] [2131] water-courses of the body in a manner which I will describe, and which will
[Timaeus] [2134] lesser. Now of all natures fire has the smallest parts, and therefore
[Timaeus] [2135] penetrates through earth and water and air and their compounds, nor can
[Timaeus] [2136] anything hold it. And a similar principle applies to the human belly; for
[Timaeus] [2137] when meats and drinks enter it, it holds them, but it cannot hold air and
[Timaeus] [2143] and air like a weel, having at the entrance two lesser weels; further he
[Timaeus] [2144] constructed one of these with two openings, and from the lesser weels he
[Timaeus] [2146] the interior of the net he made of fire, but the lesser weels and their
[Timaeus] [2147] cavity, of air. The network he took and spread over the newly-formed
[Timaeus] [2149] mouth; there were two of them, and one he let down by the air-pipes into
[Timaeus] [2155] of the body, and at one time he made all this to flow into the lesser
[Timaeus] [2156] weels, quite gently, for they are composed of air, and at another time he
[Timaeus] [2157] caused the lesser weels to flow back again; and the net he made to find a
[Timaeus] [2158] way in and out through the pores of the body, and the rays of fire which
[Timaeus] [2161] as we affirm, the name-giver named inspiration and expiration. And all
[Timaeus] [2163] body, being watered and cooled, may receive nourishment and life; for when
[Timaeus] [2164] the respiration is going in and out, and the fire, which is fast bound
[Timaeus] [2165] within, follows it, and ever and anon moving to and fro, enters through the
[Timaeus] [2166] belly and reaches the meat and drink, it dissolves them, and dividing them
[Timaeus] [2167] into small portions and guiding them through the passages where it goes,
[Timaeus] [2168] pumps them as from a fountain into the channels of the veins, and makes the
[Timaeus] [2171] Let us once more consider the phenomena of respiration, and enquire into
[Timaeus] [2174] which are moved can enter, and the breath is carried from us into the
[Timaeus] [2177] and that which is thrust out in turn drives out its neighbour; and in this
[Timaeus] [2179] the breath came forth, and enters in there, and following the breath, fills
[Timaeus] [2180] up the vacant space; and this goes on like the rotation of a wheel, because
[Timaeus] [2181] there can be no such thing as a vacuum. Wherefore also the breast and the
[Timaeus] [2183] surrounds the body and which enters in through the pores of the flesh and
[Timaeus] [2184] is driven round in a circle; and again, the air which is sent away and
[Timaeus] [2186] of the mouth and the nostrils. Now the origin of this movement may be
[Timaeus] [2188] part is that which is around the blood and veins; it is in a manner an
[Timaeus] [2190] being woven all of fire and extended through the centre of the body, while
[Timaeus] [2192] proceeds outward to its own place and to its kindred element; and as there
[Timaeus] [2193] are two exits for the heat, the one out through the body, and the other
[Timaeus] [2194] through the mouth and nostrils, when it moves towards the one, it drives
[Timaeus] [2195] round the air at the other, and that which is driven round falls into the
[Timaeus] [2196] fire and becomes warm, and that which goes forth is cooled. But when the
[Timaeus] [2197] heat changes its place, and the particles at the other exit grow warmer,
[Timaeus] [2198] the hotter air inclining in that direction and carried towards its native
[Timaeus] [2199] element, fire, pushes round the air at the other; and this being affected
[Timaeus] [2200] in the same way and communicating the same impulse, a circular motion
[Timaeus] [2201] swaying to and fro is produced by the double process, which we call
[Timaeus] [2202] inspiration and expiration.
[Timaeus] [2204] The phenomena of medical cupping-glasses and of the swallowing of drink and
[Timaeus] [2206] the ground, are to be investigated on a similar principle; and swift and
[Timaeus] [2207] slow sounds, which appear to be high and low, and are sometimes discordant
[Timaeus] [2208] on account of their inequality, and then again harmonical on account of the
[Timaeus] [2210] the antecedent swifter sounds begin to pause and the two are equalized, the
[Timaeus] [2211] slower sounds overtake the swifter and then propel them. When they
[Timaeus] [2212] overtake them they do not intrude a new and discordant motion, but
[Timaeus] [2214] dies away, thus producing a single mixed expression out of high and low,
[Timaeus] [2215] whence arises a pleasure which even the unwise feel, and which to the wise
[Timaeus] [2218] thunderbolt, and the marvels that are observed about the attraction of
[Timaeus] [2219] amber and the Heraclean stones,--in none of these cases is there any
[Timaeus] [2223] and that they change places, passing severally into their proper positions
[Timaeus] [2226] Such as we have seen, is the nature and such are the causes of respiration,
[Timaeus] [2228] food and following the breath surges up within, fire and breath rising
[Timaeus] [2229] together and filling the veins by drawing up out of the belly and pouring
[Timaeus] [2230] into them the cut portions of the food; and so the streams of food are kept
[Timaeus] [2231] flowing through the whole body in all animals. And fresh cuttings from
[Timaeus] [2235] by the cutting action of fire and by the impression which it makes on a
[Timaeus] [2236] moist substance; and hence the liquid which circulates in the body has a
[Timaeus] [2238] nourishes the flesh and the whole body, whence all parts are watered and
[Timaeus] [2241] Now the process of repletion and evacuation is effected after the manner of
[Timaeus] [2244] to consume away, and distributing and sending off like to like; the
[Timaeus] [2245] particles of blood, too, which are divided and contained within the frame
[Timaeus] [2249] away than flows in, then we decay, and when less, we grow and increase.
[Timaeus] [2252] new, and may be compared to the keel of a vessel which is just off the
[Timaeus] [2253] stocks; they are locked firmly together and yet the whole mass is soft and
[Timaeus] [2254] delicate, being freshly formed of marrow and nurtured on milk. Now when
[Timaeus] [2255] the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from
[Timaeus] [2256] without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the
[Timaeus] [2257] triangles already there, the frame of the body gets the better of them and
[Timaeus] [2258] its newer triangles cut them up, and so the animal grows great, being
[Timaeus] [2263] come in from without. In this way every animal is overcome and decays, and
[Timaeus] [2264] this affection is called old age. And at last, when the bonds by which the
[Timaeus] [2265] triangles of the marrow are united no longer hold, and are parted by the
[Timaeus] [2266] strain of existence, they in turn loosen the bonds of the soul, and she,
[Timaeus] [2269] is painful. And thus death, if caused by disease or produced by wounds, is
[Timaeus] [2270] painful and violent; but that sort of death which comes with old age and
[Timaeus] [2271] fulfils the debt of nature is the easiest of deaths, and is accompanied
[Timaeus] [2275] which the body is compacted, earth and fire and water and air, and the
[Timaeus] [2278] fire and of the other elements--the assumption by any of these of a wrong
[Timaeus] [2279] kind, or any similar irregularity, produces disorders and diseases; for
[Timaeus] [2281] parts which were previously cool grow warm, and those which were dry become
[Timaeus] [2282] moist, and the light become heavy, and the heavy light; all sorts of
[Timaeus] [2284] itself, whole and sound, when the same is added to it, or subtracted from
[Timaeus] [2285] it, in the same respect and in the same manner and in due proportion; and
[Timaeus] [2287] changes and infinite diseases and corruptions. Now there is a second class
[Timaeus] [2288] of structures which are also natural, and this affords a second opportunity
[Timaeus] [2290] and bone and flesh and sinews are composed of the four elements, and the
[Timaeus] [2295] is that the flesh and sinews should be made of blood, the sinews out of the
[Timaeus] [2296] fibres to which they are akin, and the flesh out of the clots which are
[Timaeus] [2297] formed when the fibres are separated. And the glutinous and rich matter
[Timaeus] [2298] which comes away from the sinews and the flesh, not only glues the flesh to
[Timaeus] [2299] the bones, but nourishes and imparts growth to the bone which surrounds the
[Timaeus] [2300] marrow; and by reason of the solidity of the bones, that which filters
[Timaeus] [2301] through consists of the purest and smoothest and oiliest sort of triangles,
[Timaeus] [2302] dropping like dew from the bones and watering the marrow. Now when each
[Timaeus] [2304] opposite order, disease. For when the flesh becomes decomposed and sends
[Timaeus] [2307] and bitter properties, as well as acid and saline qualities, contains all
[Timaeus] [2308] sorts of bile and serum and phlegm. For all things go the wrong way, and
[Timaeus] [2309] having become corrupted, first they taint the blood itself, and then
[Timaeus] [2313] and are hostile to the abiding constitution of the body, which they corrupt
[Timaeus] [2314] and dissolve. The oldest part of the flesh which is corrupted, being hard
[Timaeus] [2315] to decompose, from long burning grows black, and from being everywhere
[Timaeus] [2316] corroded becomes bitter, and is injurious to every part of the body which
[Timaeus] [2320] and this, when mixed with black, takes the hue of grass; and again, an
[Timaeus] [2328] and acid bile is malignant when mingled by the power of heat with any salt
[Timaeus] [2329] substance, and is then called acid phlegm. Again, the substance which is
[Timaeus] [2330] formed by the liquefaction of new and tender flesh when air is present, if
[Timaeus] [2331] inflated and encased in liquid so as to form bubbles, which separately are
[Timaeus] [2333] is visible, and have a white colour arising out of the generation of
[Timaeus] [2335] termed by us white phlegm. And the whey or sediment of newly-formed phlegm
[Timaeus] [2336] is sweat and tears, and includes the various daily discharges by which the
[Timaeus] [2338] not replenished in a natural manner by food and drink but gains bulk from
[Timaeus] [2341] power of the disorder is only half as great, and there is still a prospect
[Timaeus] [2343] diseased, and no longer being separated from the muscles and sinews, ceases
[Timaeus] [2344] to give nourishment to the bone and to unite flesh and bone, and from being
[Timaeus] [2345] oily and smooth and glutinous becomes rough and salt and dry, owing to bad
[Timaeus] [2347] flesh and the sinews, and separates from the bone, and the fleshy parts
[Timaeus] [2348] fall away from their foundation and leave the sinews bare and full of
[Timaeus] [2349] brine, and the flesh again gets into the circulation of the blood and makes
[Timaeus] [2350] the previously-mentioned disorders still greater. And if these bodily
[Timaeus] [2353] air, but becomes mouldy and hot and gangrened and receives no nutriment,
[Timaeus] [2354] and the natural process is inverted, and the bone crumbling passes into the
[Timaeus] [2355] food, and the food into the flesh, and the flesh again falling into the
[Timaeus] [2358] either from excess or defect; and this is the cause of the very greatest
[Timaeus] [2359] and most fatal disorders, in which the whole course of the body is
[Timaeus] [2363] three ways; for they are produced sometimes by wind, and sometimes by
[Timaeus] [2364] phlegm, and sometimes by bile. When the lung, which is the dispenser of
[Timaeus] [2365] the air to the body, is obstructed by rheums and its passages are not free,
[Timaeus] [2368] of air forcing its way through the veins distorts them and decomposing the
[Timaeus] [2369] body is enclosed in the midst of it and occupies the midriff; thus
[Timaeus] [2371] And oftentimes when the flesh is dissolved in the body, wind, generated
[Timaeus] [2372] within and unable to escape, is the source of quite as much pain as the air
[Timaeus] [2374] about the sinews and the veins of the shoulders, and swells them up, and so
[Timaeus] [2375] twists back the great tendons and the sinews which are connected with them.
[Timaeus] [2376] These disorders are called tetanus and opisthotonus, by reason of the
[Timaeus] [2380] communicate with the outside air, is less severe, and only discolours the
[Timaeus] [2381] body, generating leprous eruptions