Timaeus by Plato

Plato Timaeus

This is a hypertextual, self-referential edition of
Timaeus by Plato.
The text was prepared using the Project Gutenberg edition.

Click on any word to see its occurrences in the text;
click on line numbers to go to that line;
click on chapter names to go to that chapter;
or search using the form below.
Search terms can contain spaces and punctuation.

The concordance for Timaeus ordered alphanumerically,
and listed in order of word frequency. Click here for more texts.

There are 1986 occurrences of the word:   and

[Timaeus] [6] those who were yesterday my guests and are to be my entertainers to-day?
[Timaeus] [11] SOCRATES: Then, if he is not coming, you and the two others must supply
[Timaeus] [14] TIMAEUS: Certainly, and we will do all that we can; having been handsomely
[Timaeus] [21] TIMAEUS: We remember some of them, and you will be here to remind us of
[Timaeus] [23] will you briefly recapitulate the whole, and then the particulars will be
[Timaeus] [27] was the State--how constituted and of what citizens composed it would seem
[Timaeus] [30] TIMAEUS: Yes, Socrates; and what you said of it was very much to our mind.
[Timaeus] [32] SOCRATES: Did we not begin by separating the husbandmen and the artisans
[Timaeus] [37] SOCRATES: And when we had given to each one that single employment and
[Timaeus] [39] intended to be our warriors, and said that they were to be guardians of the
[Timaeus] [40] city against attacks from within as well as from without, and to have no
[Timaeus] [48] gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and
[Timaeus] [49] philosophical; and that then they would be as they ought to be, gentle to
[Timaeus] [50] their friends and fierce with their enemies.
[Timaeus] [54] SOCRATES: And what did we say of their education? Were they not to be
[Timaeus] [55] trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which
[Timaeus] [60] SOCRATES: And being thus trained they were not to consider gold or silver
[Timaeus] [64] life; and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the
[Timaeus] [70] natures should be assimilated and brought into harmony with those of the
[Timaeus] [71] men, and that common pursuits should be assigned to them both in time of
[Timaeus] [72] war and in their ordinary life.
[Timaeus] [76] SOCRATES: And what about the procreation of children? Or rather was not
[Timaeus] [77] the proposal too singular to be forgotten? for all wives and children were
[Timaeus] [80] within a suitable limit of age were to be brothers and sisters, those who
[Timaeus] [81] were of an elder generation parents and grandparents, and those of a
[Timaeus] [82] younger, children and grandchildren.
[Timaeus] [84] TIMAEUS: Yes, and the proposal is easy to remember, as you say.
[Timaeus] [86] SOCRATES: And do you also remember how, with a view of securing as far as
[Timaeus] [87] we could the best breed, we said that the chief magistrates, male and
[Timaeus] [89] the nuptial meeting, that the bad of either sex and the good of either sex
[Timaeus] [90] might pair with their like; and there was to be no quarrelling on this
[Timaeus] [91] account, for they would imagine that the union was a mere accident, and was
[Timaeus] [96] SOCRATES: And you remember how we said that the children of the good
[Timaeus] [97] parents were to be educated, and the children of the bad secretly dispersed
[Timaeus] [98] among the inferior citizens; and while they were all growing up the rulers
[Timaeus] [99] were to be on the look-out, and to bring up from below in their turn those
[Timaeus] [100] who were worthy, and those among themselves who were unworthy were to take
[Timaeus] [117] describing. There are conflicts which all cities undergo, and I should
[Timaeus] [119] her neighbours, and how she went out to war in a becoming manner, and when
[Timaeus] [120] at war showed by the greatness of her actions and the magnanimity of her
[Timaeus] [121] words in dealing with other cities a result worthy of her training and
[Timaeus] [122] education. Now I, Critias and Hermocrates, am conscious that I myself
[Timaeus] [123] should never be able to celebrate the city and her citizens in a befitting
[Timaeus] [124] manner, and I am not surprised at my own incapacity; to me the wonder is
[Timaeus] [127] imitators, and will imitate best and most easily the life in which they
[Timaeus] [129] education he finds hard to carry out in action, and still harder adequately
[Timaeus] [131] brave words and fair conceits, but I am afraid that being only wanderers
[Timaeus] [132] from one city to another, and having never had habitations of their own,
[Timaeus] [133] they may fail in their conception of philosophers and statesmen, and may
[Timaeus] [134] not know what they do and say in time of war, when they are fighting or
[Timaeus] [135] holding parley with their enemies. And thus people of your class are the
[Timaeus] [136] only ones remaining who are fitted by nature and education to take part at
[Timaeus] [137] once both in politics and philosophy. Here is Timaeus, of Locris in Italy,
[Timaeus] [138] a city which has admirable laws, and who is himself in wealth and rank the
[Timaeus] [139] equal of any of his fellow-citizens; he has held the most important and
[Timaeus] [140] honourable offices in his own state, and, as I believe, has scaled the
[Timaeus] [141] heights of all philosophy; and here is Critias, whom every Athenian knows
[Timaeus] [142] to be no novice in the matters of which we are speaking; and as to
[Timaeus] [143] Hermocrates, I am assured by many witnesses that his genius and education
[Timaeus] [144] qualify him to take part in any speculation of the kind. And therefore
[Timaeus] [147] none were better qualified to carry the discussion further, and that when
[Timaeus] [150] in return imposed this other task upon you. You conferred together and
[Timaeus] [152] discourse. Here am I in festive array, and no man can be more ready for
[Timaeus] [155] HERMOCRATES: And we too, Socrates, as Timaeus says, will not be wanting in
[Timaeus] [156] enthusiasm; and there is no excuse for not complying with your request. As
[Timaeus] [158] are staying, or rather on our way thither, we talked the matter over, and
[Timaeus] [169] seven sages. He was a relative and a dear friend of my great-grandfather,
[Timaeus] [170] Dropides, as he himself says in many passages of his poems; and he told the
[Timaeus] [171] story to Critias, my grandfather, who remembered and repeated it to us.
[Timaeus] [172] There were of old, he said, great and marvellous actions of the Athenian
[Timaeus] [173] city, which have passed into oblivion through lapse of time and the
[Timaeus] [174] destruction of mankind, and one in particular, greater than all the rest.
[Timaeus] [176] to you, and a hymn of praise true and worthy of the goddess, on this her
[Timaeus] [179] SOCRATES: Very good. And what is this ancient famous action of the
[Timaeus] [185] years of age, and I was about ten. Now the day was that day of the
[Timaeus] [187] custom, our parents gave prizes for recitations, and the poems of several
[Timaeus] [188] poets were recited by us boys, and many of us sang the poems of Solon,
[Timaeus] [192] man, as I very well remember, brightened up at hearing this and said,
[Timaeus] [194] the business of his life, and had completed the tale which he brought with
[Timaeus] [195] him from Egypt, and had not been compelled, by reason of the factions and
[Timaeus] [200] And what was the tale about, Critias? said Amynander.
[Timaeus] [202] About the greatest action which the Athenians ever did, and which ought to
[Timaeus] [203] have been the most famous, but, through the lapse of time and the
[Timaeus] [206] Tell us, said the other, the whole story, and how and from whom Solon heard
[Timaeus] [211] and the great city of the district is also called Sais, and is the city
[Timaeus] [213] foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by
[Timaeus] [215] the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them. To this
[Timaeus] [216] city came Solon, and was received there with great honour; he asked the
[Timaeus] [217] priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made
[Timaeus] [221] our part of the world--about Phoroneus, who is called 'the first man,' and
[Timaeus] [222] about Niobe; and after the Deluge, of the survival of Deucalion and Pyrrha;
[Timaeus] [223] and he traced the genealogy of their descendants, and reckoning up the
[Timaeus] [227] and there is not an old man among you. Solon in return asked him what he
[Timaeus] [230] which is hoary with age. And I will tell you why. There have been, and
[Timaeus] [232] greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and
[Timaeus] [237] and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt. Now this has the form of a
[Timaeus] [239] heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the
[Timaeus] [241] the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction
[Timaeus] [242] than those who dwell by rivers or on the seashore. And from this calamity
[Timaeus] [243] the Nile, who is our never-failing saviour, delivers and preserves us.
[Timaeus] [245] the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the
[Timaeus] [252] greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. And whatever happened either in your
[Timaeus] [255] have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.
[Timaeus] [256] Whereas just when you and other nations are beginning to be provided with
[Timaeus] [257] letters and the other requisites of civilized life, after the usual
[Timaeus] [259] and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education;
[Timaeus] [260] and so you have to begin all over again like children, and know nothing of
[Timaeus] [266] fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived, and that you and your
[Timaeus] [268] survived. And this was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the
[Timaeus] [271] Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities,
[Timaeus] [272] is said to have performed the noblest deeds and to have had the fairest
[Timaeus] [274] Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform
[Timaeus] [275] him exactly and in order about these former citizens. You are welcome to
[Timaeus] [276] hear about them, Solon, said the priest, both for your own sake and for
[Timaeus] [277] that of your city, and above all, for the sake of the goddess who is the
[Timaeus] [278] common patron and parent and educator of both our cities. She founded your
[Timaeus] [280] (9000 years ago) for the foundation of Athens and for the repulse of the
[Timaeus] [281] invasion from Atlantis (Crit.).), receiving from the Earth and Hephaestus
[Timaeus] [282] the seed of your race, and afterwards she founded ours, of which the
[Timaeus] [285] their laws and of their most famous action; the exact particulars of the
[Timaeus] [291] crafts by themselves and do not intermix; and also there is the class of
[Timaeus] [292] shepherds and of hunters, as well as that of husbandmen; and you will
[Timaeus] [294] classes, and are commanded by the law to devote themselves solely to
[Timaeus] [295] military pursuits; moreover, the weapons which they carry are shields and
[Timaeus] [299] things, extending even to prophecy and medicine which gives health, out of
[Timaeus] [300] these divine elements deriving what was needful for human life, and adding
[Timaeus] [301] every sort of knowledge which was akin to them. All this order and
[Timaeus] [303] and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw
[Timaeus] [305] wisest of men. Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war and of
[Timaeus] [306] wisdom, selected and first of all settled that spot which was the most
[Timaeus] [307] likely to produce men likest herself. And there you dwelt, having such
[Timaeus] [308] laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all
[Timaeus] [309] virtue, as became the children and disciples of the gods.
[Timaeus] [311] Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories.
[Timaeus] [312] But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour. For these
[Timaeus] [314] against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end.
[Timaeus] [316] Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the
[Timaeus] [318] larger than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands,
[Timaeus] [319] and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which
[Timaeus] [322] real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless
[Timaeus] [323] continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful
[Timaeus] [324] empire which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over
[Timaeus] [325] parts of the continent, and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected
[Timaeus] [326] the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of
[Timaeus] [328] endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country and yours and the whole of the
[Timaeus] [329] region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in
[Timaeus] [330] the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind. She was
[Timaeus] [331] pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the
[Timaeus] [332] Hellenes. And when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand
[Timaeus] [334] and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were
[Timaeus] [335] not yet subjugated, and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell
[Timaeus] [336] within the pillars. But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and
[Timaeus] [337] floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in
[Timaeus] [338] a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner
[Timaeus] [340] parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in
[Timaeus] [341] the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.
[Timaeus] [344] and related to us. And when you were speaking yesterday about your city
[Timaeus] [345] and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my
[Timaeus] [346] mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence,
[Timaeus] [348] did not like to speak at the moment. For a long time had elapsed, and I
[Timaeus] [350] narrative in my own mind, and then I would speak. And so I readily
[Timaeus] [352] chief difficulty is to find a tale suitable to our purpose, and that with
[Timaeus] [355] And therefore, as Hermocrates has told you, on my way home yesterday I at
[Timaeus] [356] once communicated the tale to my companions as I remembered it; and after I
[Timaeus] [363] me, and I asked him again and again to repeat his words, so that like an
[Timaeus] [366] well as myself, might have something to say. And now, Socrates, to make an
[Timaeus] [369] The city and citizens, which you yesterday described to us in fiction, we
[Timaeus] [371] Athens, and we will suppose that the citizens whom you imagined, were our
[Timaeus] [373] harmonize, and there will be no inconsistency in saying that the citizens
[Timaeus] [375] among us, and all endeavour according to our ability gracefully to execute
[Timaeus] [380] SOCRATES: And what other, Critias, can we find that will be better than
[Timaeus] [381] this, which is natural and suitable to the festival of the goddess, and has
[Timaeus] [382] the very great advantage of being a fact and not a fiction? How or where
[Timaeus] [383] shall we find another if we abandon this? We cannot, and therefore you
[Timaeus] [384] must tell the tale, and good luck to you; and I in return for my
[Timaeus] [385] yesterday's discourse will now rest and be a listener.
[Timaeus] [389] the most of an astronomer amongst us, and has made the nature of the
[Timaeus] [391] generation of the world and going down to the creation of man; next, I am
[Timaeus] [392] to receive the men whom he has created, and of whom some will have profited
[Timaeus] [393] by the excellent education which you have given them; and then, in
[Timaeus] [394] accordance with the tale of Solon, and equally with his law, we will bring
[Timaeus] [395] them into court and make them citizens, as if they were those very
[Timaeus] [396] Athenians whom the sacred Egyptian record has recovered from oblivion, and
[Timaeus] [397] thenceforward we will speak of them as Athenians and fellow-citizens.
[Timaeus] [399] SOCRATES: I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid
[Timaeus] [400] feast of reason. And now, Timaeus, you, I suppose, should speak next,
[Timaeus] [405] God. And we, too, who are going to discourse of the nature of the
[Timaeus] [407] altogether out of our wits, must invoke the aid of Gods and Goddesses and
[Timaeus] [408] pray that our words may be acceptable to them and consistent with
[Timaeus] [411] intelligible to you, and will most accord with my own intent.
[Timaeus] [413] First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask, What is
[Timaeus] [414] that which always is and has no becoming; and what is that which is always
[Timaeus] [415] becoming and never is? That which is apprehended by intelligence and
[Timaeus] [417] with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of
[Timaeus] [418] becoming and perishing and never really is. Now everything that becomes or
[Timaeus] [421] unchangeable and fashions the form and nature of his work after an
[Timaeus] [422] unchangeable pattern, must necessarily be made fair and perfect; but when
[Timaeus] [423] he looks to the created only, and uses a created pattern, it is not fair or
[Timaeus] [427] the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created,
[Timaeus] [428] and had it a beginning? Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and
[Timaeus] [429] having a body, and therefore sensible; and all sensible things are
[Timaeus] [430] apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and
[Timaeus] [432] created by a cause. But the father and maker of all this universe is past
[Timaeus] [433] finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be
[Timaeus] [434] impossible. And there is still a question to be asked about him: Which of
[Timaeus] [437] fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to
[Timaeus] [440] looked to the eternal; for the world is the fairest of creations and he is
[Timaeus] [441] the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has
[Timaeus] [442] been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind
[Timaeus] [443] and is unchangeable, and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted,
[Timaeus] [445] everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and
[Timaeus] [447] describe; when they relate to the lasting and permanent and intelligible,
[Timaeus] [448] they ought to be lasting and unalterable, and, as far as their nature
[Timaeus] [449] allows, irrefutable and immovable--nothing less. But when they express
[Timaeus] [450] only the copy or likeness and not the eternal things themselves, they need
[Timaeus] [451] only be likely and analogous to the real words. As being is to becoming,
[Timaeus] [453] gods and the generation of the universe, we are not able to give notions
[Timaeus] [454] which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one
[Timaeus] [456] as any others; for we must remember that I who am the speaker, and you who
[Timaeus] [457] are the judges, are only mortal men, and we ought to accept the tale which
[Timaeus] [458] is probable and enquire no further.
[Timaeus] [460] SOCRATES: Excellent, Timaeus; and we will do precisely as you bid us. The
[Timaeus] [461] prelude is charming, and is already accepted by us--may we beg of you to
[Timaeus] [465] generation. He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of
[Timaeus] [466] anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should
[Timaeus] [468] origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on
[Timaeus] [469] the testimony of wise men: God desired that all things should be good and
[Timaeus] [471] whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly
[Timaeus] [474] or have been other than the fairest; and the creator, reflecting on the
[Timaeus] [476] taken as a whole was fairer than the intelligent taken as a whole; and that
[Timaeus] [479] soul, and soul in body, that he might be the creator of a work which was by
[Timaeus] [480] nature fairest and best. Wherefore, using the language of probability, we
[Timaeus] [481] may say that the world became a living creature truly endowed with soul and
[Timaeus] [489] individually and in their tribes are portions. For the original of the
[Timaeus] [491] comprehends us and all other visible creatures. For the Deity, intending
[Timaeus] [492] to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible
[Timaeus] [495] world, or that they are many and infinite? There must be one only, if the
[Timaeus] [499] and of which they would be parts, and the likeness would be more truly said
[Timaeus] [502] not two worlds or an infinite number of them; but there is and ever will be
[Timaeus] [503] one only-begotten and created heaven.
[Timaeus] [505] Now that which is created is of necessity corporeal, and also visible and
[Timaeus] [506] tangible. And nothing is visible where there is no fire, or tangible which
[Timaeus] [507] has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth. Wherefore also God in
[Timaeus] [509] and earth. But two things cannot be rightly put together without a third;
[Timaeus] [510] there must be some bond of union between them. And the fairest bond is
[Timaeus] [511] that which makes the most complete fusion of itself and the things which it
[Timaeus] [512] combines; and proportion is best adapted to effect such a union. For
[Timaeus] [514] which is to the last term what the first term is to it; and again, when the
[Timaeus] [516] becoming first and last, and the first and last both becoming means, they
[Timaeus] [517] will all of them of necessity come to be the same, and having become the
[Timaeus] [519] created a surface only and having no depth, a single mean would have
[Timaeus] [520] sufficed to bind together itself and the other terms; but now, as the world
[Timaeus] [521] must be solid, and solid bodies are always compacted not by one mean but by
[Timaeus] [522] two, God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth, and made
[Timaeus] [524] so is air to water, and as air is to water so is water to earth); and thus
[Timaeus] [525] he bound and put together a visible and tangible heaven. And for these
[Timaeus] [526] reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the
[Timaeus] [527] world was created, and it was harmonized by proportion, and therefore has
[Timaeus] [528] the spirit of friendship; and having been reconciled to itself, it was
[Timaeus] [532] Creator compounded the world out of all the fire and all the water and all
[Timaeus] [533] the air and all the earth, leaving no part of any of them nor any power of
[Timaeus] [535] should be as far as possible a perfect whole and of perfect parts:
[Timaeus] [537] such world might be created: and also that it should be free from old age
[Timaeus] [538] and unaffected by disease. Considering that if heat and cold and other
[Timaeus] [539] powerful forces which unite bodies surround and attack them from without
[Timaeus] [540] when they are unprepared, they decompose them, and by bringing diseases and
[Timaeus] [541] old age upon them, make them waste away--for this cause and on these
[Timaeus] [542] grounds he made the world one whole, having every part entire, and being
[Timaeus] [543] therefore perfect and not liable to old age and disease. And he gave to
[Timaeus] [544] the world the figure which was suitable and also natural. Now to the
[Timaeus] [548] direction equidistant from the centre, the most perfect and the most like
[Timaeus] [553] ears when there was nothing to be heard; and there was no surrounding
[Timaeus] [558] own waste providing his own food, and all that he did or suffered taking
[Timaeus] [559] place in and by himself. For the Creator conceived that a being which was
[Timaeus] [561] and, as he had no need to take anything or defend himself against any one,
[Timaeus] [565] seven that which is most appropriate to mind and intelligence; and he was
[Timaeus] [566] made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits
[Timaeus] [568] and he was made not to partake of their deviations. And as this circular
[Timaeus] [569] movement required no feet, the universe was created without legs and
[Timaeus] [573] whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in
[Timaeus] [574] every direction equidistant from the centre, a body entire and perfect, and
[Timaeus] [575] formed out of perfect bodies. And in the centre he put the soul, which he
[Timaeus] [577] of it; and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and
[Timaeus] [578] solitary, yet by reason of its excellence able to converse with itself, and
[Timaeus] [586] much under the dominion of chance. Whereas he made the soul in origin and
[Timaeus] [587] excellence prior to and older than the body, to be the ruler and mistress,
[Timaeus] [588] of whom the body was to be the subject. And he made her out of the
[Timaeus] [589] following elements and on this wise: Out of the indivisible and
[Timaeus] [590] unchangeable, and also out of that which is divisible and has to do with
[Timaeus] [591] material bodies, he compounded a third and intermediate kind of essence,
[Timaeus] [592] partaking of the nature of the same and of the other, and this compound he
[Timaeus] [593] placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and
[Timaeus] [594] material. He took the three elements of the same, the other, and the
[Timaeus] [595] essence, and mingled them into one form, compressing by force the reluctant
[Timaeus] [596] and unsociable nature of the other into the same. When he had mingled them
[Timaeus] [597] with the essence and out of three made one, he again divided this whole
[Timaeus] [599] same, the other, and the essence. And he proceeded to divide after this
[Timaeus] [600] manner:--First of all, he took away one part of the whole (1), and then he
[Timaeus] [601] separated a second part which was double the first (2), and then he took
[Timaeus] [602] away a third part which was half as much again as the second and three
[Timaeus] [603] times as much as the first (3), and then he took a fourth part which was
[Timaeus] [604] twice as much as the second (4), and a fifth part which was three times the
[Timaeus] [605] third (9), and a sixth part which was eight times the first (8), and a
[Timaeus] [607] filled up the double intervals (i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8) and the triple
[Timaeus] [609] and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two
[Timaeus] [610] kinds of means, the one exceeding and exceeded by equal parts of its
[Timaeus] [612] more than 1, and one-third of 2 less than 2), the other being that kind of
[Timaeus] [613] mean which exceeds and is exceeded by an equal number (e.g.
[Timaeus] [615] - over 1, 4/3, 3/2, - over 2, 8/3, 3, - over 4, 16/3, 6, - over 8: and
[Timaeus] [618] Where there were intervals of 3/2 and of 4/3 and of 9/8, made by the
[Timaeus] [620] 4/3 with the interval of 9/8, leaving a fraction over; and the interval
[Timaeus] [625] And thus the whole mixture out of which he cut these portions was all
[Timaeus] [627] parts, which he joined to one another at the centre like the letter X, and
[Timaeus] [628] bent them into a circular form, connecting them with themselves and each
[Timaeus] [629] other at the point opposite to their original meeting-point; and,
[Timaeus] [631] one the outer and the other the inner circle. Now the motion of the outer
[Timaeus] [632] circle he called the motion of the same, and the motion of the inner circle
[Timaeus] [635] in the circle of the Same) to the right, and the motion of the diverse
[Timaeus] [637] the left. And he gave dominion to the motion of the same and like, for
[Timaeus] [638] that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in
[Timaeus] [639] six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in
[Timaeus] [640] ratios of two and three, three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a
[Timaeus] [641] direction opposite to one another; and three (Sun, Mercury, Venus) he made
[Timaeus] [642] to move with equal swiftness, and the remaining four (Moon, Saturn, Mars,
[Timaeus] [643] Jupiter) to move with unequal swiftness to the three and to one another,
[Timaeus] [647] within her the corporeal universe, and brought the two together, and united
[Timaeus] [650] herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never-ceasing and
[Timaeus] [652] but the soul is invisible, and partakes of reason and harmony, and being
[Timaeus] [653] made by the best of intellectual and everlasting natures, is the best of
[Timaeus] [654] things created. And because she is composed of the same and of the other
[Timaeus] [655] and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due
[Timaeus] [656] proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself, the soul, when
[Timaeus] [659] difference of that thing and some other; and to what individuals are
[Timaeus] [660] related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in
[Timaeus] [661] the world of generation and in the world of immutable being. And when
[Timaeus] [665] sensible world and when the circle of the diverse also moving truly imparts
[Timaeus] [666] the intimations of sense to the whole soul, then arise opinions and beliefs
[Timaeus] [667] sure and certain. But when reason is concerned with the rational, and the
[Timaeus] [668] circle of the same moving smoothly declares it, then intelligence and
[Timaeus] [669] knowledge are necessarily perfected. And if any one affirms that in which
[Timaeus] [673] When the father and creator saw the creature which he had made moving and
[Timaeus] [674] living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy
[Timaeus] [675] determined to make the copy still more like the original; and as this was
[Timaeus] [679] have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he
[Timaeus] [681] itself rests in unity; and this image we call time. For there were no days
[Timaeus] [682] and nights and months and years before the heaven was created, but when he
[Timaeus] [684] and the past and future are created species of time, which we unconsciously
[Timaeus] [687] to him, and that 'was' and 'will be' are only to be spoken of becoming in
[Timaeus] [691] which affect moving and sensible things and of which generation is the
[Timaeus] [692] cause. These are the forms of time, which imitates eternity and revolves
[Timaeus] [694] IS become and what becomes IS becoming, and that what will become IS about
[Timaeus] [695] to become and that the non-existent IS non-existent--all these are
[Timaeus] [699] Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order
[Timaeus] [703] for the pattern exists from eternity, and the created heaven has been, and
[Timaeus] [704] is, and will be, in all time. Such was the mind and thought of God in the
[Timaeus] [705] creation of time. The sun and moon and five other stars, which are called
[Timaeus] [706] the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the
[Timaeus] [707] numbers of time; and when he had made their several bodies, he placed them
[Timaeus] [710] earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the
[Timaeus] [711] morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an
[Timaeus] [712] equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction; and this is the
[Timaeus] [713] reason why the sun and Hermes and Lucifer overtake and are overtaken by
[Timaeus] [715] and to give all the reasons why he assigned them, although a secondary
[Timaeus] [721] attained a motion suitable to them, and had become living creatures having
[Timaeus] [722] bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task, moving in
[Timaeus] [723] the motion of the diverse, which is diagonal, and passes through and is
[Timaeus] [724] governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and
[Timaeus] [726] and those which had the larger more slowly. Now by reason of the motion of
[Timaeus] [729] the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and
[Timaeus] [732] might be some visible measure of their relative swiftness and slowness as
[Timaeus] [735] give light to the whole of heaven, and that the animals, as many as nature
[Timaeus] [737] revolution of the same and the like. Thus then, and for this reason the
[Timaeus] [738] night and the day were created, being the period of the one most
[Timaeus] [739] intelligent revolution. And the month is accomplished when the moon has
[Timaeus] [740] completed her orbit and overtaken the sun, and the year when the sun has
[Timaeus] [742] remarked the periods of the other stars, and they have no name for them,
[Timaeus] [743] and do not measure them against one another by the help of number, and
[Timaeus] [745] infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time. And yet
[Timaeus] [748] degrees of swiftness, are accomplished together and attain their completion
[Timaeus] [749] at the same time, measured by the rotation of the same and equally moving.
[Timaeus] [750] After this manner, and for these reasons, came into being such of the stars
[Timaeus] [752] the created heaven might imitate the eternal nature, and be as like as
[Timaeus] [753] possible to the perfect and intelligible animal.
[Timaeus] [755] Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the
[Timaeus] [759] animal the mind perceives ideas or species of a certain nature and number,
[Timaeus] [761] and number. There are four such; one of them is the heavenly race of the
[Timaeus] [763] watery species; and the fourth, the pedestrian and land creatures. Of the
[Timaeus] [764] heavenly and divine, he created the greater part out of fire, that they
[Timaeus] [765] might be the brightest of all things and fairest to behold, and he
[Timaeus] [767] circle, and made them follow the intelligent motion of the supreme,
[Timaeus] [769] true cosmos or glorious world spangled with them all over. And he gave to
[Timaeus] [773] they are controlled by the revolution of the same and the like; but by the
[Timaeus] [775] attain the highest perfection. And for this reason the fixed stars were
[Timaeus] [776] created, to be divine and eternal animals, ever-abiding and revolving after
[Timaeus] [777] the same manner and on the same spot; and the other stars which reverse
[Timaeus] [778] their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in
[Timaeus] [781] framed to be the guardian and artificer of night and day, first and eldest
[Timaeus] [783] tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their
[Timaeus] [784] juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon
[Timaeus] [785] themselves, and their approximations, and to say which of these deities in
[Timaeus] [786] their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what
[Timaeus] [787] order they get behind and before one another, and when they are severally
[Timaeus] [788] eclipsed to our sight and again reappear, sending terrors and intimations
[Timaeus] [791] would be labour in vain. Enough on this head; and now let what we have
[Timaeus] [792] said about the nature of the created and visible gods have an end.
[Timaeus] [794] To know or tell the origin of the other divinities is beyond us, and we
[Timaeus] [796] be the offspring of the gods--that is what they say--and they must surely
[Timaeus] [800] we must conform to custom and believe them. In this manner, then,
[Timaeus] [801] according to them, the genealogy of these gods is to be received and set
[Timaeus] [804] Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from these
[Timaeus] [805] sprang Phorcys and Cronos and Rhea, and all that generation; and from
[Timaeus] [806] Cronos and Rhea sprang Zeus and Here, and all those who are said to be
[Timaeus] [807] their brethren, and others who were the children of these.
[Timaeus] [812] 'Gods, children of gods, who are my works, and of whom I am the artificer
[Timaeus] [813] and father, my creations are indissoluble, if so I will. All that is bound
[Timaeus] [815] harmonious and happy. Wherefore, since ye are but creatures, ye are not
[Timaeus] [816] altogether immortal and indissoluble, but ye shall certainly not be
[Timaeus] [818] and mightier bond than those with which ye were bound at the time of your
[Timaeus] [819] birth. And now listen to my instructions:--Three tribes of mortal beings
[Timaeus] [822] to be perfect. On the other hand, if they were created by me and received
[Timaeus] [824] then that they may be mortal, and that this universe may be truly
[Timaeus] [828] and is the guiding principle of those who are willing to follow justice and
[Timaeus] [829] you--of that divine part I will myself sow the seed, and having made a
[Timaeus] [830] beginning, I will hand the work over to you. And do ye then interweave the
[Timaeus] [831] mortal with the immortal, and make and beget living creatures, and give
[Timaeus] [832] them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death.'
[Timaeus] [834] Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously
[Timaeus] [835] mingled the soul of the universe he poured the remains of the elements, and
[Timaeus] [837] before, but diluted to the second and third degree. And having made it he
[Timaeus] [838] divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars, and
[Timaeus] [839] assigned each soul to a star; and having there placed them as in a chariot,
[Timaeus] [840] he showed them the nature of the universe, and declared to them the laws of
[Timaeus] [841] destiny, according to which their first birth would be one and the same for
[Timaeus] [843] sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come
[Timaeus] [844] forth the most religious of animals; and as human nature was of two kinds,
[Timaeus] [846] implanted in bodies by necessity, and be always gaining or losing some part
[Timaeus] [848] that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation,
[Timaeus] [850] have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle; also fear and anger, and the
[Timaeus] [852] would live righteously, and if they were conquered by them, unrighteously.
[Timaeus] [853] He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his
[Timaeus] [854] native star, and there he would have a blessed and congenial existence.
[Timaeus] [856] a woman, and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil,
[Timaeus] [858] evil nature which he had acquired, and would not cease from his toils and
[Timaeus] [859] transformations until he followed the revolution of the same and the like
[Timaeus] [860] within him, and overcame by the help of reason the turbulent and irrational
[Timaeus] [861] mob of later accretions, made up of fire and air and water and earth, and
[Timaeus] [862] returned to the form of his first and better state. Having given all these
[Timaeus] [864] them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon,
[Timaeus] [865] and some in the other instruments of time; and when he had sown them he
[Timaeus] [866] committed to the younger gods the fashioning of their mortal bodies, and
[Timaeus] [867] desired them to furnish what was still lacking to the human soul, and
[Timaeus] [868] having made all the suitable additions, to rule over them, and to pilot the
[Timaeus] [869] mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert
[Timaeus] [873] accustomed nature, and his children heard and were obedient to their
[Timaeus] [874] father's word, and receiving from him the immortal principle of a mortal
[Timaeus] [876] and earth, and water, and air from the world, which were hereafter to be
[Timaeus] [877] restored--these they took and welded them together, not with the
[Timaeus] [880] separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body
[Timaeus] [881] which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux. Now these courses,
[Timaeus] [883] hurrying and hurried to and fro, so that the whole animal was moved and
[Timaeus] [884] progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six
[Timaeus] [885] directions of motion, wandering backwards and forwards, and right and left,
[Timaeus] [886] and up and down, and in all the six directions. For great as was the
[Timaeus] [887] advancing and retiring flood which provided nourishment, the affections
[Timaeus] [889] any one met and came into collision with some external fire, or with the
[Timaeus] [891] the air, and the motions produced by any of these impulses were carried
[Timaeus] [893] the general name of 'sensations,' which they still retain. And they did in
[Timaeus] [894] fact at that time create a very great and mighty movement; uniting with the
[Timaeus] [895] ever-flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the
[Timaeus] [897] current, and hindered it from predominating and advancing; and they so
[Timaeus] [899] intervals (i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8), and the three triple intervals (i.e.
[Timaeus] [900] between 1, 3, 9, 27), together with the mean terms and connecting links
[Timaeus] [901] which are expressed by the ratios of 3:2, and 4:3, and of 9:8--these,
[Timaeus] [903] twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and
[Timaeus] [905] tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse
[Timaeus] [906] direction, and then again obliquely, and then upside down, as you might
[Timaeus] [907] imagine a person who is upside down and has his head leaning upon the
[Timaeus] [908] ground and his feet up against something in the air; and when he is in such
[Timaeus] [909] a position, both he and the spectator fancy that the right of either is his
[Timaeus] [910] left, and the left right. If, when powerfully experiencing these and
[Timaeus] [913] of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth; and
[Timaeus] [914] they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them
[Timaeus] [915] which has a guiding or directing power; and if again any sensations enter
[Timaeus] [916] in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul,
[Timaeus] [920] And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal
[Timaeus] [922] the flood of growth and nutriment abates, and the courses of the soul,
[Timaeus] [923] calming down, go their own way and become steadier as time goes on, then
[Timaeus] [924] the several circles return to their natural form, and their revolutions are
[Timaeus] [925] corrected, and they call the same and the other by their right names, and
[Timaeus] [926] make the possessor of them to become a rational being. And if these
[Timaeus] [928] and health of the perfect man, and escapes the worst disease of all; but if
[Timaeus] [929] he neglects education he walks lame to the end of his life, and returns
[Timaeus] [930] imperfect and good for nothing to the world below. This, however, is a
[Timaeus] [932] which involves a preliminary enquiry into the generation of the body and
[Timaeus] [933] its members, and as to how the soul was created--for what reason and by
[Timaeus] [934] what providence of the gods; and holding fast to probability, we must
[Timaeus] [939] now term the head, being the most divine part of us and the lord of all
[Timaeus] [942] of motion. In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and
[Timaeus] [943] deep places of the earth, but might be able to get over the one and out of
[Timaeus] [944] the other, they provided the body to be its vehicle and means of
[Timaeus] [945] locomotion; which consequently had length and was furnished with four limbs
[Timaeus] [946] extended and flexible; these God contrived to be instruments of locomotion
[Timaeus] [947] with which it might take hold and find support, and so be able to pass
[Timaeus] [949] and divine part of us. Such was the origin of legs and hands, which for
[Timaeus] [950] this reason were attached to every man; and the gods, deeming the front
[Timaeus] [951] part of man to be more honourable and more fit to command than the hinder
[Timaeus] [953] needs have his front part unlike and distinguished from the rest of his
[Timaeus] [956] And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face in which
[Timaeus] [958] soul, and they appointed this part, which has authority, to be by nature
[Timaeus] [959] the part which is in front. And of the organs they first contrived the
[Timaeus] [960] eyes to give light, and the principle according to which they were inserted
[Timaeus] [963] and the pure fire which is within us and related thereto they made to flow
[Timaeus] [964] through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye,
[Timaeus] [965] and especially the centre part, so that it kept out everything of a coarser
[Timaeus] [966] nature, and allowed to pass only this pure element. When the light of day
[Timaeus] [967] surrounds the stream of vision, then like falls upon like, and they
[Timaeus] [968] coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision,
[Timaeus] [970] And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of
[Timaeus] [973] call sight. But when night comes on and the external and kindred fire
[Timaeus] [975] element it is changed and extinguished, being no longer of one nature with
[Timaeus] [976] the surrounding atmosphere which is now deprived of fire: and so the eye
[Timaeus] [977] no longer sees, and we feel disposed to sleep. For when the eyelids, which
[Timaeus] [979] the internal fire; and the power of the fire diffuses and equalizes the
[Timaeus] [980] inward motions; when they are equalized, there is rest, and when the rest
[Timaeus] [982] greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality,
[Timaeus] [984] when we are awake and in the external world. And now there is no longer
[Timaeus] [985] any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all
[Timaeus] [986] smooth and bright surfaces. For from the communion of the internal and
[Timaeus] [987] external fires, and again from the union of them and their numerous
[Timaeus] [990] the eye on the bright and smooth surface. And right appears left and left
[Timaeus] [993] appears right, and the left left, when the position of one of the two
[Timaeus] [994] concurring lights is reversed; and this happens when the mirror is concave
[Timaeus] [995] and its smooth surface repels the right stream of vision to the left side,
[Timaeus] [996] and the left to the right (He is speaking of two kinds of mirrors, first
[Timaeus] [997] the plane, secondly the concave; and the latter is supposed to be placed,
[Timaeus] [998] first horizontally, and then vertically.). Or if the mirror be turned
[Timaeus] [1000] upside down, and the lower rays are driven upwards and the upper downwards.
[Timaeus] [1002] All these are to be reckoned among the second and co-operative causes which
[Timaeus] [1005] the prime causes of all things, because they freeze and heat, and contract
[Timaeus] [1006] and dilate, and the like. But they are not so, for they are incapable of
[Timaeus] [1008] invisible soul, whereas fire and water, and earth and air, are all of them
[Timaeus] [1009] visible bodies. The lover of intellect and knowledge ought to explore
[Timaeus] [1010] causes of intelligent nature first of all, and, secondly, of those things
[Timaeus] [1011] which, being moved by others, are compelled to move others. And this is
[Timaeus] [1014] and are the workers of things fair and good, and those which are deprived
[Timaeus] [1015] of intelligence and always produce chance effects without order or design.
[Timaeus] [1018] therefore now proceed to speak of the higher use and purpose for which God
[Timaeus] [1020] greatest benefit to us, for had we never seen the stars, and the sun, and
[Timaeus] [1022] ever have been uttered. But now the sight of day and night, and the months
[Timaeus] [1023] and the revolutions of the years, have created number, and have given us a
[Timaeus] [1024] conception of time, and the power of enquiring about the nature of the
[Timaeus] [1025] universe; and from this source we have derived philosophy, than which no
[Timaeus] [1027] the greatest boon of sight: and of the lesser benefits why should I speak?
[Timaeus] [1029] but in vain. Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight
[Timaeus] [1031] and apply them to the courses of our own intelligence which are akin to
[Timaeus] [1032] them, the unperturbed to the perturbed; and that we, learning them and
[Timaeus] [1034] unerring courses of God and regulate our own vagaries. The same may be
[Timaeus] [1035] affirmed of speech and hearing: they have been given by the gods to the
[Timaeus] [1036] same end and for a like reason. For this is the principal end of speech,
[Timaeus] [1038] the sound of the voice and to the sense of hearing is granted to us for the
[Timaeus] [1039] sake of harmony; and harmony, which has motions akin to the revolutions of
[Timaeus] [1043] have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her
[Timaeus] [1044] into harmony and agreement with herself; and rhythm too was given by them
[Timaeus] [1045] for the same reason, on account of the irregular and graceless ways which
[Timaeus] [1046] prevail among mankind generally, and to help us against them.
[Timaeus] [1049] intelligence have been set forth; and now we must place by the side of them
[Timaeus] [1051] the creation is mixed, being made up of necessity and mind. Mind, the
[Timaeus] [1053] things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when
[Timaeus] [1057] well. Wherefore, we must return again and find another suitable beginning,
[Timaeus] [1059] consider the nature of fire, and water, and air, and earth, such as they
[Timaeus] [1060] were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in
[Timaeus] [1062] generation, but we speak of fire and the rest of them, whatever they mean,
[Timaeus] [1063] as though men knew their natures, and we maintain them to be the first
[Timaeus] [1064] principles and letters or elements of the whole, when they cannot
[Timaeus] [1066] compounds. And let me say thus much: I will not now speak of the first
[Timaeus] [1071] be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task. Remembering what I
[Timaeus] [1073] explanation as any other--or rather, more probable; and I will first go
[Timaeus] [1074] back to the beginning and try to speak of each thing and of all. Once
[Timaeus] [1075] more, then, at the commencement of my discourse, I call upon God, and beg
[Timaeus] [1076] him to be our saviour out of a strange and unwonted enquiry, and to bring
[Timaeus] [1082] assumed, was a pattern intelligible and always the same; and the second was
[Timaeus] [1083] only the imitation of the pattern, generated and visible. There is also a
[Timaeus] [1086] set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and
[Timaeus] [1088] reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all
[Timaeus] [1090] language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in
[Timaeus] [1091] particular because I must first raise questions concerning fire and the
[Timaeus] [1092] other elements, and determine what each of them is; for to say, with any
[Timaeus] [1094] fire, and which should be called any of them rather than all or some one of
[Timaeus] [1095] them, is a difficult matter. How, then, shall we settle this point, and
[Timaeus] [1099] condensation, I suppose, becomes stone and earth; and this same element,
[Timaeus] [1100] when melted and dispersed, passes into vapour and air. Air, again, when
[Timaeus] [1101] inflamed, becomes fire; and again fire, when condensed and extinguished,
[Timaeus] [1102] passes once more into the form of air; and once more, air, when collected
[Timaeus] [1103] and condensed, produces cloud and mist; and from these, when still more
[Timaeus] [1104] compressed, comes flowing water, and from water comes earth and stones once
[Timaeus] [1105] more; and thus generation appears to be transmitted from one to the other
[Timaeus] [1114] indicate by the use of the words 'this' and 'that,' supposing ourselves to
[Timaeus] [1119] similar principle circulating in each and all of them; for example, that
[Timaeus] [1120] should be called 'fire' which is of such a nature always, and so of
[Timaeus] [1122] up, and appear, and decay, is alone to be called by the name 'this' or
[Timaeus] [1124] which admits of opposite qualities, and all things that are compounded of
[Timaeus] [1127] figures of gold and to be always transmuting one form into all the rest;--
[Timaeus] [1128] somebody points to one of them and asks what it is. By far the safest and
[Timaeus] [1129] truest answer is, That is gold; and not to call the triangle or any other
[Timaeus] [1132] if the questioner be willing to take the safe and indefinite expression,
[Timaeus] [1133] 'such,' we should be satisfied. And the same argument applies to the
[Timaeus] [1136] own nature, and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that
[Timaeus] [1138] all impressions, and is stirred and informed by them, and appears different
[Timaeus] [1139] from time to time by reason of them. But the forms which enter into and go
[Timaeus] [1141] patterns in a wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter
[Timaeus] [1144] generation takes place; and thirdly, that of which the thing generated is a
[Timaeus] [1145] resemblance. And we may liken the receiving principle to a mother, and the
[Timaeus] [1146] source or spring to a father, and the intermediate nature to a child; and
[Timaeus] [1149] unless it is formless, and free from the impress of any of those shapes
[Timaeus] [1158] making the surface as even and smooth as possible. In the same way that
[Timaeus] [1159] which is to receive perpetually and through its whole extent the
[Timaeus] [1161] form. Wherefore, the mother and receptacle of all created and visible and
[Timaeus] [1164] are derived, but is an invisible and formless being which receives all
[Timaeus] [1165] things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most
[Timaeus] [1169] from time to time is inflamed, and water that which is moistened, and that
[Timaeus] [1170] the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the
[Timaeus] [1174] fire? and do all those things which we call self-existent exist? or are
[Timaeus] [1176] organs, truly existent, and nothing whatever besides them? And is all that
[Timaeus] [1177] which we call an intelligible essence nothing at all, and only a name?
[Timaeus] [1184] Thus I state my view:--If mind and true opinion are two distinct classes,
[Timaeus] [1186] by sense, and apprehended only by the mind; if, however, as some say, true
[Timaeus] [1188] through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain. But we must
[Timaeus] [1189] affirm them to be distinct, for they have a distinct origin and are of a
[Timaeus] [1193] can: and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind
[Timaeus] [1194] is the attribute of the gods and of very few men. Wherefore also we must
[Timaeus] [1196] uncreated and indestructible, never receiving anything into itself from
[Timaeus] [1197] without, nor itself going out to any other, but invisible and imperceptible
[Timaeus] [1198] by any sense, and of which the contemplation is granted to intelligence
[Timaeus] [1199] only. And there is another nature of the same name with it, and like to
[Timaeus] [1200] it, perceived by sense, created, always in motion, becoming in place and
[Timaeus] [1201] again vanishing out of place, which is apprehended by opinion and sense.
[Timaeus] [1202] And there is a third nature, which is space, and is eternal, and admits not
[Timaeus] [1203] of destruction and provides a home for all created things, and is
[Timaeus] [1204] apprehended without the help of sense, by a kind of spurious reason, and is
[Timaeus] [1206] must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is
[Timaeus] [1207] neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence. Of these and other things
[Timaeus] [1208] of the same kind, relating to the true and waking reality of nature, we
[Timaeus] [1209] have only this dreamlike sense, and we are unable to cast off sleep and
[Timaeus] [1211] which it is modelled, does not belong to it, and it exists ever as the
[Timaeus] [1214] But true and exact reason, vindicating the nature of true being, maintains
[Timaeus] [1215] that while two things (i.e. the image and space) are different they cannot
[Timaeus] [1216] exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.
[Timaeus] [1218] Thus have I concisely given the result of my thoughts; and my verdict is
[Timaeus] [1219] that being and space and generation, these three, existed in their three
[Timaeus] [1220] ways before the heaven; and that the nurse of generation, moistened by
[Timaeus] [1221] water and inflamed by fire, and receiving the forms of earth and air, and
[Timaeus] [1223] variety of appearances; and being full of powers which were neither similar
[Timaeus] [1225] swaying unevenly hither and thither, was shaken by them, and by its motion
[Timaeus] [1226] again shook them; and the elements when moved were separated and carried
[Timaeus] [1227] continually, some one way, some another; as, when grain is shaken and
[Timaeus] [1228] winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the
[Timaeus] [1229] close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and
[Timaeus] [1230] the loose and light particles in another. In this manner, the four kinds
[Timaeus] [1233] unlike, and forced the most similar elements into close contact. Wherefore
[Timaeus] [1235] as to form the universe. At first, they were all without reason and
[Timaeus] [1236] measure. But when the world began to get into order, fire and water and
[Timaeus] [1237] earth and air had only certain faint traces of themselves, and were
[Timaeus] [1239] God; this, I say, was their nature at that time, and God fashioned them by
[Timaeus] [1240] form and number. Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we
[Timaeus] [1241] say that God made them as far as possible the fairest and best, out of
[Timaeus] [1242] things which were not fair and good. And now I will endeavour to show you
[Timaeus] [1243] the disposition and generation of them by an unaccustomed argument, which I
[Timaeus] [1247] In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water
[Timaeus] [1248] and air are bodies. And every sort of body possesses solidity, and every
[Timaeus] [1249] solid must necessarily be contained in planes; and every plane rectilinear
[Timaeus] [1250] figure is composed of triangles; and all triangles are originally of two
[Timaeus] [1251] kinds, both of which are made up of one right and two acute angles; one of
[Timaeus] [1256] elements of fire and the other bodies; but the principles which are prior
[Timaeus] [1257] to these God only knows, and he of men who is the friend of God. And next
[Timaeus] [1259] unlike one another, and of which some are capable of resolution into one
[Timaeus] [1261] earth and fire and of the proportionate and intermediate elements. And
[Timaeus] [1264] the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able
[Timaeus] [1268] beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order, and any one who can point out
[Timaeus] [1271] we maintain to be the most beautiful of all the many triangles (and we need
[Timaeus] [1274] disproves what we are saying, and shows that we are mistaken, may claim a
[Timaeus] [1275] friendly victory. Then let us choose two triangles, out of which fire and
[Timaeus] [1281] error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and
[Timaeus] [1287] converse. But three of them can be thus resolved and compounded, for they
[Timaeus] [1288] all spring from one, and when the greater bodies are broken up, many small
[Timaeus] [1289] bodies will spring up out of them and take their own proper figures; or,
[Timaeus] [1293] kinds, and show out of what combinations of numbers each of them was
[Timaeus] [1294] formed. The first will be the simplest and smallest construction, and its
[Timaeus] [1296] When two such triangles are joined at the diagonal, and this is repeated
[Timaeus] [1297] three times, and the triangles rest their diagonals and shorter sides on
[Timaeus] [1299] six triangles; and four equilateral triangles, if put together, make out of
[Timaeus] [1301] the most obtuse of plane angles; and out of the combination of these four
[Timaeus] [1302] angles arises the first solid form which distributes into equal and similar
[Timaeus] [1305] triangles and form one solid angle out of four plane angles, and out of six
[Timaeus] [1306] such angles the second body is completed. And the third body is made up of
[Timaeus] [1313] joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral
[Timaeus] [1323] and ignorant mind. He, however, who raises the question whether they are
[Timaeus] [1331] immoveable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies, and that which
[Timaeus] [1334] by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides; and of the
[Timaeus] [1337] triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this
[Timaeus] [1338] figure to earth, we adhere to probability; and to water we assign that one
[Timaeus] [1339] of the remaining forms which is the least moveable; and the most moveable
[Timaeus] [1340] of them to fire; and to air that which is intermediate. Also we assign the
[Timaeus] [1341] smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in
[Timaeus] [1342] size to air; and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in
[Timaeus] [1343] acuteness to air, and the third to water. Of all these elements, that
[Timaeus] [1345] must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the
[Timaeus] [1347] and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the
[Timaeus] [1349] strict reason and according to probability, that the pyramid is the solid
[Timaeus] [1350] which is the original element and seed of fire; and let us assign the
[Timaeus] [1351] element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to
[Timaeus] [1354] when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen. And
[Timaeus] [1355] the ratios of their numbers, motions, and other properties, everywhere God,
[Timaeus] [1356] as far as necessity allowed or gave consent, has exactly perfected, and
[Timaeus] [1360] most probable conclusion is as follows:--earth, when meeting with fire and
[Timaeus] [1362] itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and
[Timaeus] [1363] thither, until its parts, meeting together and mutually harmonising, again
[Timaeus] [1365] divided by fire or by air, on re-forming, may become one part fire and two
[Timaeus] [1366] parts air; and a single volume of air divided becomes two of fire. Again,
[Timaeus] [1368] earth, and both are moving, and the fire struggling is overcome and broken
[Timaeus] [1369] up, then two volumes of fire form one volume of air; and when air is
[Timaeus] [1370] overcome and cut up into small pieces, two and a half parts of air are
[Timaeus] [1372] way. When one of the other elements is fastened upon by fire, and is cut
[Timaeus] [1373] by the sharpness of its angles and sides, it coalesces with the fire, and
[Timaeus] [1374] then ceases to be cut by them any longer. For no element which is one and
[Timaeus] [1376] and in the same state. But so long as in the process of transition the
[Timaeus] [1379] decomposition and extinction, they only cease from their tendency to
[Timaeus] [1380] extinction when they consent to pass into the conquering nature, and fire
[Timaeus] [1381] becomes air and air water. But if bodies of another kind go and attack
[Timaeus] [1383] being completely forced back and dispersed, they make their escape to their
[Timaeus] [1384] own kindred, or else, being overcome and assimilated to the conquering
[Timaeus] [1385] power, they remain where they are and dwell with their victors, and from
[Timaeus] [1386] being many become one. And owing to these affections, all things are
[Timaeus] [1389] become unlike themselves and like other things, are hurried by the shaking
[Timaeus] [1392] Now all unmixed and primary bodies are produced by such causes as these.
[Timaeus] [1396] one size only, but some larger and some smaller, and there are as many
[Timaeus] [1398] mingled with themselves and with one another there is an endless variety of
[Timaeus] [1402] Unless a person comes to an understanding about the nature and conditions
[Timaeus] [1403] of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion
[Timaeus] [1404] which follows. Something has been said of this matter already, and
[Timaeus] [1407] mover is hard or indeed impossible, and equally impossible to conceive that
[Timaeus] [1409] cannot exist where either of these are wanting, and for these to be uniform
[Timaeus] [1410] is impossible; wherefore we must assign rest to uniformity and motion to
[Timaeus] [1412] wanting in uniformity; and of this we have already described the origin.
[Timaeus] [1414] their kinds do not cease to pass through one another and to change their
[Timaeus] [1416] universe are comprehended all the four elements, and this being circular
[Timaeus] [1417] and having a tendency to come together, compresses everything and will not
[Timaeus] [1419] penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the
[Timaeus] [1420] elements; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to
[Timaeus] [1422] largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and
[Timaeus] [1423] those which are composed of the smallest particles have the least. And the
[Timaeus] [1425] the interstices of the larger. And thus, when the small parts are placed
[Timaeus] [1426] side by side with the larger, and the lesser divide the greater and the
[Timaeus] [1427] greater unite the lesser, all the elements are borne up and down and hither
[Timaeus] [1428] and thither towards their own places; for the change in the size of each
[Timaeus] [1429] changes its position in space. And these causes generate an inequality
[Timaeus] [1430] which is always maintained, and is continually creating a perpetual motion
[Timaeus] [1434] There are, for example, first, flame; and secondly, those emanations of
[Timaeus] [1438] brightest part is called the aether, and the most turbid sort mist and
[Timaeus] [1439] darkness; and there are various other nameless kinds which arise from the
[Timaeus] [1441] division into two kinds; the one liquid and the other fusile. The liquid
[Timaeus] [1442] kind is composed of the small and unequal particles of water; and moves
[Timaeus] [1443] itself and is moved by other bodies owing to the want of uniformity and the
[Timaeus] [1444] shape of its particles; whereas the fusile kind, being formed of large and
[Timaeus] [1445] uniform particles, is more stable than the other, and is heavy and compact
[Timaeus] [1446] by reason of its uniformity. But when fire gets in and dissolves the
[Timaeus] [1447] particles and destroys the uniformity, it has greater mobility, and
[Timaeus] [1448] becoming fluid is thrust forth by the neighbouring air and spreads upon the
[Timaeus] [1449] earth; and this dissolution of the solid masses is called melting, and
[Timaeus] [1452] neighbouring air; and the air which is displaced forces together the liquid
[Timaeus] [1453] and still moveable mass into the place which was occupied by the fire, and
[Timaeus] [1455] and is again at unity with itself, because the fire which was the author of
[Timaeus] [1456] the inequality has retreated; and this departure of the fire is called
[Timaeus] [1457] cooling, and the coming together which follows upon it is termed
[Timaeus] [1458] congealment. Of all the kinds termed fusile, that which is the densest and
[Timaeus] [1459] is formed out of the finest and most uniform parts is that most precious
[Timaeus] [1461] is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour. A shoot
[Timaeus] [1462] of gold, which is so dense as to be very hard, and takes a black colour, is
[Timaeus] [1464] gold, and of which there are several species; it is denser than gold, and
[Timaeus] [1465] it contains a small and fine portion of earth, and is therefore harder, yet
[Timaeus] [1467] and this substance, which is one of the bright and denser kinds of water,
[Timaeus] [1469] it, which, when the two parts grow old and are disunited, shows itself
[Timaeus] [1470] separately and is called rust. The remaining phenomena of the same kind
[Timaeus] [1473] things, and for recreation turn to consider the truths of generation which
[Timaeus] [1474] are probable only; he will thus gain a pleasure not to be repented of, and
[Timaeus] [1475] secure for himself while he lives a wise and moderate pastime. Let us
[Timaeus] [1476] grant ourselves this indulgence, and go through the probabilities relating
[Timaeus] [1479] Water which is mingled with fire, so much as is fine and liquid (being so
[Timaeus] [1480] called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the
[Timaeus] [1481] ground), and soft, because its bases give way and are less stable than
[Timaeus] [1482] those of earth, when separated from fire and air and isolated, becomes more
[Timaeus] [1483] uniform, and by their retirement is compressed into itself; and if the
[Timaeus] [1485] the earth, ice; and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only
[Timaeus] [1486] half solid, when above the earth is called snow, and when upon the earth,
[Timaeus] [1487] and condensed from dew, hoar-frost. Then, again, there are the numerous
[Timaeus] [1488] kinds of water which have been mingled with one another, and are distilled
[Timaeus] [1489] through plants which grow in the earth; and this whole class is called by
[Timaeus] [1492] fiery nature are clearly distinguished and have names. First, there is
[Timaeus] [1494] oily nature, which is smooth and divides the visual ray, and for this
[Timaeus] [1495] reason is bright and shining and of a glistening appearance, including
[Timaeus] [1496] pitch, the juice of the castor berry, oil itself, and other things of a
[Timaeus] [1499] and by reason of this property create sweetness;--these are included under
[Timaeus] [1500] the general name of honey: and, lastly, there is a frothy nature, which
[Timaeus] [1505] stone in the following manner:--The water which mixes with the earth and is
[Timaeus] [1506] broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into
[Timaeus] [1508] neighbouring air, and this being rendered heavy, and, when it is displaced,
[Timaeus] [1509] having been poured around the mass of earth, forcibly compresses it and
[Timaeus] [1510] drives it into the vacant space whence the new air had come up; and the
[Timaeus] [1512] becomes rock. The fairer sort is that which is made up of equal and
[Timaeus] [1513] similar parts and is transparent; that which has the opposite qualities is
[Timaeus] [1516] Sometimes also moisture may remain, and the earth which has been fused by
[Timaeus] [1519] occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny
[Timaeus] [1521] water--the one, soda, which is used for purging away oil and earth, the
[Timaeus] [1523] palate, and is, as the law testifies, a substance dear to the gods. The
[Timaeus] [1524] compounds of earth and water are not soluble by water, but by fire only,
[Timaeus] [1525] and for this reason:--Neither fire nor air melt masses of earth; for their
[Timaeus] [1527] of room to move without forcing their way, and so they leave the earth
[Timaeus] [1528] unmelted and undissolved; but particles of water, which are larger, force a
[Timaeus] [1529] passage, and dissolve and melt the earth. Wherefore earth when not
[Timaeus] [1534] interstices, and the latter penetrating even the triangles. But nothing
[Timaeus] [1537] dissolve it. As to bodies composed of earth and water, while the water
[Timaeus] [1540] no entrance, flow around the entire mass and leave it undissolved; but the
[Timaeus] [1542] water what water does to earth and fire to air (The text seems to be
[Timaeus] [1543] corrupt.), and are the sole causes of the compound body of earth and water
[Timaeus] [1544] liquefying and becoming fluid. Now these bodies are of two kinds; some of
[Timaeus] [1545] them, such as glass and the fusible sort of stones, have less water than
[Timaeus] [1546] they have earth; on the other hand, substances of the nature of wax and
[Timaeus] [1550] their forms and combinations and changes into one another, and now I must
[Timaeus] [1551] endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them. In the
[Timaeus] [1554] what belongs to flesh, or of that part of the soul which is mortal. And
[Timaeus] [1557] former: and yet to explain them together is hardly possible; for which
[Timaeus] [1558] reason we must assume first one or the other and afterwards examine the
[Timaeus] [1560] regularly after the elements, let us presuppose the existence of body and
[Timaeus] [1563] First, let us enquire what we mean by saying that fire is hot; and about
[Timaeus] [1565] our bodies. We all of us feel that fire is sharp; and we may further
[Timaeus] [1566] consider the fineness of the sides, and the sharpness of the angles, and
[Timaeus] [1567] the smallness of the particles, and the swiftness of the motion--all this
[Timaeus] [1568] makes the action of fire violent and sharp, so that it cuts whatever it
[Timaeus] [1569] meets. And we must not forget that the original figure of fire (i.e. the
[Timaeus] [1571] bodies into small pieces (Kepmatizei), and thus naturally produces that
[Timaeus] [1572] affection which we call heat; and hence the origin of the name (thepmos,
[Timaeus] [1575] which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not
[Timaeus] [1576] being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us; and
[Timaeus] [1577] this from being unequal and disturbed, is forced by them into a state of
[Timaeus] [1578] rest, which is due to equability and compression. But things which are
[Timaeus] [1579] contracted contrary to nature are by nature at war, and force themselves
[Timaeus] [1580] apart; and to this war and convulsion the name of shivering and trembling
[Timaeus] [1581] is given; and the whole affection and the cause of the affection are both
[Timaeus] [1582] termed cold. That is called hard to which our flesh yields, and soft which
[Timaeus] [1583] yields to our flesh; and things are also termed hard and soft relatively to
[Timaeus] [1585] quadrangular bases is firmly posed and belongs to the class which offers
[Timaeus] [1586] the greatest resistance; so too does that which is the most compact and
[Timaeus] [1587] therefore most repellent. The nature of the light and the heavy will be
[Timaeus] [1588] best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and
[Timaeus] [1590] into two regions, separate from and opposite to each other, the one a lower
[Timaeus] [1591] to which all things tend which have any bulk, and an upper to which things
[Timaeus] [1594] extremities, and the centre, which is equidistant from them, is equally to
[Timaeus] [1599] centre and nothing else; and the circumference is not the centre, and has
[Timaeus] [1605] they are all perfectly similar; and if a person were to go round the world
[Timaeus] [1607] position, speak of the same point as above and below; for, as I was saying
[Timaeus] [1609] one part above and another below is not like a sensible man. The reason
[Timaeus] [1610] why these names are used, and the circumstances under which they are
[Timaeus] [1613] the universe which is the appointed place of fire, and where there is the
[Timaeus] [1615] ascend thither, and, having the power to do this, were to abstract
[Timaeus] [1616] particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them, and then, raising
[Timaeus] [1620] by one and the same power, the smaller body must necessarily yield to the
[Timaeus] [1621] superior power with less reluctance than the larger; and the larger body is
[Timaeus] [1622] called heavy and said to tend downwards, and the smaller body is called
[Timaeus] [1623] light and said to tend upwards. And we may detect ourselves who are upon
[Timaeus] [1625] natures, and sometimes earth itself, and draw them into the uncongenial
[Timaeus] [1626] element of air by force and contrary to nature, both clinging to their
[Timaeus] [1628] us towards the dissimilar element more easily than the larger; and so we
[Timaeus] [1629] call the former light, and the place towards which it is impelled we call
[Timaeus] [1630] above, and the contrary state and place we call heavy and below
[Timaeus] [1634] and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to
[Timaeus] [1635] that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place. And about
[Timaeus] [1637] its kindred element makes the body which is moved heavy, and the place
[Timaeus] [1640] to these phenomena. As to the smooth and the rough, any one who sees them
[Timaeus] [1642] mingled with irregularity, and smoothness is produced by the joint effect
[Timaeus] [1643] of uniformity and density.
[Timaeus] [1646] to be considered--that is, the cause of pleasure and pain in the
[Timaeus] [1647] perceptions of which I have been speaking, and in all other things which
[Timaeus] [1648] are perceived by sense through the parts of the body, and have both pains
[Timaeus] [1649] and pleasures attendant on them. Let us imagine the causes of every
[Timaeus] [1652] easy and which is hard to move; for this is the direction in which we must
[Timaeus] [1657] But a body of the opposite kind, being immobile, and not extending to the
[Timaeus] [1658] surrounding region, merely receives the impression, and does not stir any
[Timaeus] [1659] of the neighbouring parts; and since the parts do not distribute the
[Timaeus] [1661] animal, and therefore produces no effect on the patient. This is true of
[Timaeus] [1662] the bones and hair and other more earthy parts of the human body; whereas
[Timaeus] [1663] what was said above relates mainly to sight and hearing, because they have
[Timaeus] [1664] in them the greatest amount of fire and air. Now we must conceive of
[Timaeus] [1665] pleasure and pain in this way. An impression produced in us contrary to
[Timaeus] [1666] nature and violent, if sudden, is painful; and, again, the sudden return to
[Timaeus] [1667] nature is pleasant; but a gentle and gradual return is imperceptible and
[Timaeus] [1672] cuttings and burnings and other affections which happen to the sight do not
[Timaeus] [1674] state; but the sensations are clearest and strongest according to the
[Timaeus] [1675] manner in which the eye is affected by the object, and itself strikes and
[Timaeus] [1678] with a struggle; and then they impart their motions to the whole and cause
[Timaeus] [1679] pleasure and pain--pain when alienated from their natural conditions, and
[Timaeus] [1681] withdrawings and emptyings of their nature, and great and sudden
[Timaeus] [1683] replenishment; and so they occasion no pain, but the greatest pleasure, to
[Timaeus] [1685] things which are changed all of a sudden, and only gradually and with
[Timaeus] [1687] to the former, as is evident in the case of burnings and cuttings of the
[Timaeus] [1690] Thus have we discussed the general affections of the whole body, and the
[Timaeus] [1691] names of the agents which produce them. And now I will endeavour to speak
[Timaeus] [1692] of the affections of particular parts, and the causes and agents of them,
[Timaeus] [1696] by certain contractions and dilations, but they have besides more of
[Timaeus] [1697] roughness and smoothness than is found in other affections; for whenever
[Timaeus] [1699] instruments of the tongue, reaching to the heart, and fall upon the moist,
[Timaeus] [1700] delicate portions of flesh--when, as they are dissolved, they contract and
[Timaeus] [1703] nature, and purge the whole surface of the tongue, if they do it in excess,
[Timaeus] [1704] and so encroach as to consume some part of the flesh itself, like potash
[Timaeus] [1705] and soda, are all termed bitter. But the particles which are deficient in
[Timaeus] [1706] the alkaline quality, and which cleanse only moderately, are called salt,
[Timaeus] [1707] and having no bitterness or roughness, are regarded as rather agreeable
[Timaeus] [1708] than otherwise. Bodies which share in and are made smooth by the heat of
[Timaeus] [1709] the mouth, and which are inflamed, and again in turn inflame that which
[Timaeus] [1710] heats them, and which are so light that they are carried upwards to the
[Timaeus] [1711] sensations of the head, and cut all that comes in their way, by reason of
[Timaeus] [1713] particles, refined by putrefaction, enter into the narrow veins, and are
[Timaeus] [1714] duly proportioned to the particles of earth and air which are there, they
[Timaeus] [1715] set them whirling about one another, and while they are in a whirl cause
[Timaeus] [1716] them to dash against and enter into one another, and so form hollows
[Timaeus] [1719] air) are hollow spheres of water; and those of them which are pure, are
[Timaeus] [1720] transparent, and are called bubbles, while those composed of the earthy
[Timaeus] [1721] liquid, which is in a state of general agitation and effervescence, are
[Timaeus] [1723] And there is the opposite affection arising from an opposite cause, when
[Timaeus] [1725] congenial to the tongue, and smooths and oils over the roughness, and
[Timaeus] [1726] relaxes the parts which are unnaturally contracted, and contracts the parts
[Timaeus] [1727] which are relaxed, and disposes them all according to their nature;--that
[Timaeus] [1728] sort of remedy of violent affections is pleasant and agreeable to every
[Timaeus] [1729] man, and has the name sweet. But enough of this.
[Timaeus] [1732] are of a half-formed nature, and no element is so proportioned as to have
[Timaeus] [1733] any smell. The veins about the nose are too narrow to admit earth and
[Timaeus] [1734] water, and too wide to detain fire and air; and for this reason no one ever
[Timaeus] [1736] that are damp, or putrefying, or liquefying, or evaporating, and are
[Timaeus] [1738] and air into water; and all of them are either vapour or mist. That which
[Timaeus] [1739] is passing out of air into water is mist, and that which is passing from
[Timaeus] [1740] water into air is vapour; and hence all smells are thinner than water and
[Timaeus] [1742] to the respiration, and a man draws in his breath by force, then no smell
[Timaeus] [1744] the varieties of smell have no name, and they have not many, or definite
[Timaeus] [1745] and simple kinds; but they are distinguished only as painful and pleasant,
[Timaeus] [1746] the one sort irritating and disturbing the whole cavity which is situated
[Timaeus] [1747] between the head and the navel, the other having a soothing influence, and
[Timaeus] [1748] restoring this same region to an agreeable and natural condition.
[Timaeus] [1752] which passes through the ears, and is transmitted by means of the air, the
[Timaeus] [1753] brain, and the blood, to the soul, and that hearing is the vibration of
[Timaeus] [1754] this blow, which begins in the head and ends in the region of the liver.
[Timaeus] [1755] The sound which moves swiftly is acute, and the sound which moves slowly is
[Timaeus] [1756] grave, and that which is regular is equable and smooth, and the reverse is
[Timaeus] [1757] harsh. A great body of sound is loud, and a small body of sound the
[Timaeus] [1762] name of colours, and are a flame which emanates from every sort of body,
[Timaeus] [1763] and has particles corresponding to the sense of sight. I have spoken
[Timaeus] [1764] already, in what has preceded, of the causes which generate sight, and in
[Timaeus] [1765] this place it will be natural and suitable to give a rational theory of
[Timaeus] [1769] are smaller and some are larger, and some are equal to the parts of the
[Timaeus] [1770] sight itself. Those which are equal are imperceptible, and we call them
[Timaeus] [1772] sight, exercising a power akin to that of hot and cold bodies on the flesh,
[Timaeus] [1774] termed pungent. White and black are similar effects of contraction and
[Timaeus] [1775] dilation in another sphere, and for this reason have a different
[Timaeus] [1777] visual ray, and the opposite of this is black. There is also a swifter
[Timaeus] [1778] motion of a different sort of fire which strikes and dilates the ray of
[Timaeus] [1779] sight until it reaches the eyes, forcing a way through their passages and
[Timaeus] [1780] melting them, and eliciting from them a union of fire and water which we
[Timaeus] [1782] opposite direction--the inner fire flashes forth like lightning, and the
[Timaeus] [1783] outer finds a way in and is extinguished in the moisture, and all sorts of
[Timaeus] [1785] and the object which produces it is called bright and flashing. There is
[Timaeus] [1786] another sort of fire which is intermediate, and which reaches and mingles
[Timaeus] [1787] with the moisture of the eye without flashing; and in this, the fire
[Timaeus] [1789] which we give the name of red. A bright hue mingled with red and white
[Timaeus] [1794] mingled with black and white, becomes purple, but it becomes umber (Greek)
[Timaeus] [1795] when the colours are burnt as well as mingled and the black is more
[Timaeus] [1797] auburn and dun (Greek), and dun by an admixture of black and white; pale
[Timaeus] [1798] yellow (Greek), by an admixture of white and auburn. White and bright
[Timaeus] [1799] meeting, and falling upon a full black, become dark blue (Greek), and when
[Timaeus] [1802] difficulty in seeing how and by what mixtures the colours derived from
[Timaeus] [1805] difference of the human and divine nature. For God only has the knowledge
[Timaeus] [1806] and also the power which are able to combine many things into one and again
[Timaeus] [1811] creator of the fairest and best of created things associated with himself,
[Timaeus] [1812] when he made the self-sufficing and most perfect God, using the necessary
[Timaeus] [1815] sorts of causes, the one divine and the other necessary, and may seek for
[Timaeus] [1818] considering that without them and when isolated from them, these higher
[Timaeus] [1825] in a few words to the point at which we began, and then endeavour to add on
[Timaeus] [1829] thing in relation to itself, and in all things in relation to each other,
[Timaeus] [1830] all the measures and harmonies which they could possibly receive. For in
[Timaeus] [1833] example, fire, water, and the rest of the elements. All these the creator
[Timaeus] [1834] first set in order, and out of them he constructed the universe, which was
[Timaeus] [1835] a single animal comprehending in itself all other animals, mortal and
[Timaeus] [1837] of the mortal he committed to his offspring. And they, imitating him,
[Timaeus] [1838] received from him the immortal principle of the soul; and around this they
[Timaeus] [1839] proceeded to fashion a mortal body, and made it to be the vehicle of the
[Timaeus] [1840] soul, and constructed within the body a soul of another nature which was
[Timaeus] [1841] mortal, subject to terrible and irresistible affections,--first of all,
[Timaeus] [1843] good; also rashness and fear, two foolish counsellors, anger hard to be
[Timaeus] [1844] appeased, and hope easily led astray;--these they mingled with irrational
[Timaeus] [1845] sense and with all-daring love according to necessary laws, and so framed
[Timaeus] [1849] and boundary, which they constructed between the head and breast, to keep
[Timaeus] [1850] them apart. And in the breast, and in what is termed the thorax, they
[Timaeus] [1851] encased the mortal soul; and as the one part of this was superior and the
[Timaeus] [1853] women's and men's apartments are divided in houses, and placed the midriff
[Timaeus] [1855] which is endowed with courage and passion and loves contention they settled
[Timaeus] [1856] nearer the head, midway between the midriff and the neck, in order that it
[Timaeus] [1857] might be under the rule of reason and might join with it in controlling and
[Timaeus] [1861] The heart, the knot of the veins and the fountain of the blood which races
[Timaeus] [1865] whole power of feeling in the body, perceiving these commands and threats,
[Timaeus] [1866] might obey and follow through every turn and alley, and thus allow the
[Timaeus] [1869] and the swelling and excitement of passion was caused by fire, formed and
[Timaeus] [1871] place, soft and bloodless, and also had within hollows like the pores of a
[Timaeus] [1872] sponge, in order that by receiving the breath and the drink, it might give
[Timaeus] [1873] coolness and the power of respiration and alleviate the heat. Wherefore
[Timaeus] [1874] they cut the air-channels leading to the lung, and placed the lung about
[Timaeus] [1876] beating against a yielding body, might be cooled and suffer less, and might
[Timaeus] [1879] The part of the soul which desires meats and drinks and the other things of
[Timaeus] [1881] midriff and the boundary of the navel, contriving in all this region a sort
[Timaeus] [1882] of manger for the food of the body; and there they bound it down like a
[Timaeus] [1883] wild animal which was chained up with man, and must be nourished if man was
[Timaeus] [1885] he might be always feeding at the manger, and have his dwelling as far as
[Timaeus] [1886] might be from the council-chamber, making as little noise and disturbance
[Timaeus] [1887] as possible, and permitting the best part to advise quietly for the good of
[Timaeus] [1888] the whole. And knowing that this lower principle in man would not
[Timaeus] [1889] comprehend reason, and even if attaining to some degree of perception would
[Timaeus] [1891] phantoms and visions night and day,--to be a remedy for this, God combined
[Timaeus] [1892] with it the liver, and placed it in the house of the lower nature,
[Timaeus] [1893] contriving that it should be solid and smooth, and bright and sweet, and
[Timaeus] [1896] receives likenesses of objects and gives back images of them to the sight;
[Timaeus] [1897] and so might strike terror into the desires, when, making use of the bitter
[Timaeus] [1898] part of the liver, to which it is akin, it comes threatening and invading,
[Timaeus] [1899] and diffusing this bitter element swiftly through the whole liver produces
[Timaeus] [1900] colours like bile, and contracting every part makes it wrinkled and rough;
[Timaeus] [1901] and twisting out of its right place and contorting the lobe and closing and
[Timaeus] [1902] shutting up the vessels and gates, causes pain and loathing. And the
[Timaeus] [1904] images of an opposite character, and allays the bile and bitterness by
[Timaeus] [1906] of the natural sweetness of the liver, corrects all things and makes them
[Timaeus] [1907] to be right and smooth and free, and renders the portion of the soul which
[Timaeus] [1908] resides about the liver happy and joyful, enabling it to pass the night in
[Timaeus] [1909] peace, and to practise divination in sleep, inasmuch as it has no share in
[Timaeus] [1910] mind and reason. For the authors of our being, remembering the command of
[Timaeus] [1912] that they might correct our inferior parts and make them to attain a
[Timaeus] [1913] measure of truth, placed in the liver the seat of divination. And herein
[Timaeus] [1916] truth and inspiration; but when he receives the inspired word, either his
[Timaeus] [1918] possession. And he who would understand what he remembers to have been
[Timaeus] [1919] said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic and
[Timaeus] [1921] apparitions which he has seen, and what indications they afford to this man
[Timaeus] [1922] or that, of past, present or future good and evil, must first recover his
[Timaeus] [1925] true, that 'only a man who has his wits can act or judge about himself and
[Timaeus] [1926] his own affairs.' And for this reason it is customary to appoint
[Timaeus] [1929] sayings and visions, and are not to be called prophets at all, but only
[Timaeus] [1935] becomes blind, and delivers oracles too obscure to be intelligible. The
[Timaeus] [1936] neighbouring organ (the spleen) is situated on the left-hand side, and is
[Timaeus] [1937] constructed with a view of keeping the liver bright and pure,--like a
[Timaeus] [1938] napkin, always ready prepared and at hand to clean the mirror. And hence,
[Timaeus] [1941] and bloodless tissue, receives them all and clears them away, and when
[Timaeus] [1942] filled with the unclean matter, swells and festers, but, again, when the
[Timaeus] [1943] body is purged, settles down into the same place as before, and is humbled.
[Timaeus] [1945] Concerning the soul, as to which part is mortal and which divine, and how
[Timaeus] [1946] and why they are separated, and where located, if God acknowledges that we
[Timaeus] [1947] have spoken the truth, then, and then only, can we be confident; still, we
[Timaeus] [1948] may venture to assert that what has been said by us is probable, and will
[Timaeus] [1951] The creation of the rest of the body follows next in order, and this we may
[Timaeus] [1952] investigate in a similar manner. And it appears to be very meet that the
[Timaeus] [1956] and drinking, and take a good deal more than was necessary or proper, by
[Timaeus] [1958] us, and lest our mortal race should perish without fulfilling its end--
[Timaeus] [1960] belly, to be a receptacle for the superfluous meat and drink, and formed
[Timaeus] [1962] passing quickly through and compelling the body to require more food, thus
[Timaeus] [1963] producing insatiable gluttony, and making the whole race an enemy to
[Timaeus] [1964] philosophy and music, and rebellious against the divinest element within
[Timaeus] [1967] The bones and flesh, and other similar parts of us, were made as follows.
[Timaeus] [1970] and they are the root and foundation of the human race. The marrow itself
[Timaeus] [1972] as were straight and smooth, and were adapted by their perfection to
[Timaeus] [1973] produce fire and water, and air and earth--these, I say, he separated from
[Timaeus] [1974] their kinds, and mingling them in due proportions with one another, made
[Timaeus] [1976] and in this seed he then planted and enclosed the souls, and in the
[Timaeus] [1977] original distribution gave to the marrow as many and various forms as the
[Timaeus] [1979] field, was to receive the divine seed, he made round every way, and called
[Timaeus] [1982] that which was intended to contain the remaining and mortal part of the
[Timaeus] [1983] soul he distributed into figures at once round and elongated, and he called
[Timaeus] [1984] them all by the name 'marrow'; and to these, as to anchors, fastening the
[Timaeus] [1989] Bone was composed by him in the following manner. Having sifted pure and
[Timaeus] [1990] smooth earth he kneaded it and wetted it with marrow, and after that he put
[Timaeus] [1991] it into fire and then into water, and once more into fire and again into
[Timaeus] [1994] of bone, which he placed around the brain, and in this he left a narrow
[Timaeus] [1995] opening; and around the marrow of the neck and back he formed vertebrae
[Timaeus] [1996] which he placed under one another like pivots, beginning at the head and
[Timaeus] [1998] entire seed, he enclosed it in a stone-like casing, inserting joints, and
[Timaeus] [2000] intermediate nature, that they might have motion and flexure. Then again,
[Timaeus] [2001] considering that the bone would be too brittle and inflexible, and when
[Timaeus] [2002] heated and again cooled would soon mortify and destroy the seed within--
[Timaeus] [2003] having this in view, he contrived the sinews and the flesh, that so binding
[Timaeus] [2005] and relaxed about the vertebrae, he might thus make the body capable of
[Timaeus] [2006] flexion and extension, while the flesh would serve as a protection against
[Timaeus] [2007] the summer heat and against the winter cold, and also against falls, softly
[Timaeus] [2008] and easily yielding to external bodies, like articles made of felt; and
[Timaeus] [2009] containing in itself a warm moisture which in summer exudes and makes the
[Timaeus] [2010] surface damp, would impart a natural coolness to the whole body; and again
[Timaeus] [2012] defence against the frost which surrounds it and attacks it from without.
[Timaeus] [2013] He who modelled us, considering these things, mixed earth with fire and
[Timaeus] [2014] water and blended them; and making a ferment of acid and salt, he mingled
[Timaeus] [2015] it with them and formed soft and succulent flesh. As for the sinews, he
[Timaeus] [2016] made them of a mixture of bone and unfermented flesh, attempered so as to
[Timaeus] [2017] be in a mean, and gave them a yellow colour; wherefore the sinews have a
[Timaeus] [2018] firmer and more glutinous nature than flesh, but a softer and moister
[Timaeus] [2019] nature than the bones. With these God covered the bones and marrow,
[Timaeus] [2020] binding them together by sinews, and then enshrouded them all in an upper
[Timaeus] [2021] covering of flesh. The more living and sensitive of the bones he enclosed
[Timaeus] [2022] in the thinnest film of flesh, and those which had the least life within
[Timaeus] [2023] them in the thickest and most solid flesh. So again on the joints of the
[Timaeus] [2026] bodies and make them unwieldy because difficult to move; and also that it
[Timaeus] [2027] might not, by being crowded and pressed and matted together, destroy
[Timaeus] [2028] sensation by reason of its hardness, and impair the memory and dull the
[Timaeus] [2029] edge of intelligence. Wherefore also the thighs and the shanks and the
[Timaeus] [2030] hips, and the bones of the arms and the forearms, and other parts which
[Timaeus] [2031] have no joints, and the inner bones, which on account of the rarity of the
[Timaeus] [2036] is not the case. For the nature which comes into being and grows up in us
[Timaeus] [2037] by a law of necessity, does not admit of the combination of solid bone and
[Timaeus] [2039] of the head would have had them, if they could have co-existed, and the
[Timaeus] [2040] human race, having a strong and fleshy and sinewy head, would have had a
[Timaeus] [2041] life twice or many times as long as it now has, and also more healthy and
[Timaeus] [2045] span of life, which was better, to a longer one, which was worse; and
[Timaeus] [2046] therefore they covered the head with thin bone, but not with flesh and
[Timaeus] [2047] sinews, since it had no joints; and thus the head was added, having more
[Timaeus] [2048] wisdom and sensation than the rest of the body, but also being in every man
[Timaeus] [2049] far weaker. For these reasons and after this manner God placed the sinews
[Timaeus] [2050] at the extremity of the head, in a circle round the neck, and glued them
[Timaeus] [2051] together by the principle of likeness and fastened the extremities of the
[Timaeus] [2052] jawbones to them below the face, and the other sinews he dispersed
[Timaeus] [2054] mouth, as now arranged, having teeth and tongue and lips, with a view to
[Timaeus] [2055] the necessary and the good contriving the way in for necessary purposes,
[Timaeus] [2057] and gives food to the body; but the river of speech, which flows out of a
[Timaeus] [2058] man and ministers to the intelligence, is the fairest and noblest of all
[Timaeus] [2060] account of the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons, nor yet
[Timaeus] [2061] be allowed to be wholly covered, and so become dull and senseless by reason
[Timaeus] [2063] dried up, but a large sort of peel was parted off and remained over, which
[Timaeus] [2064] is now called the skin. This met and grew by the help of the cerebral
[Timaeus] [2065] moisture, and became the circular envelopment of the head. And the
[Timaeus] [2066] moisture, rising up under the sutures, watered and closed in the skin upon
[Timaeus] [2068] by the power of the courses of the soul and of the food, and the more these
[Timaeus] [2069] struggled against one another the more numerous they became, and fewer if
[Timaeus] [2071] round with fire, and out of the punctures which were thus made the moisture
[Timaeus] [2072] issued forth, and the liquid and heat which was pure came away, and a mixed
[Timaeus] [2073] part which was composed of the same material as the skin, and had a
[Timaeus] [2074] fineness equal to the punctures, was borne up by its own impulse and
[Timaeus] [2076] back by the external air, and rolled up underneath the skin, where it took
[Timaeus] [2078] like threads of leather, but rendered harder and closer through the
[Timaeus] [2080] from the skin, is compressed and cooled. Wherefore the creator formed the
[Timaeus] [2081] head hairy, making use of the causes which I have mentioned, and reflecting
[Timaeus] [2083] or guard, which would give shade in summer and shelter in winter, and at
[Timaeus] [2085] combination of sinew, skin, and bone, in the structure of the finger, there
[Timaeus] [2087] skin partaking of all three natures, and was fabricated by these second
[Timaeus] [2089] the future. For our creators well knew that women and other animals would
[Timaeus] [2090] some day be framed out of men, and they further knew that many animals
[Timaeus] [2093] and for these reasons they caused skin, hair, and nails to grow at the
[Timaeus] [2096] And now that all the parts and members of the mortal animal had come
[Timaeus] [2097] together, since its life of necessity consisted of fire and breath, and it
[Timaeus] [2098] therefore wasted away by dissolution and depletion, the gods contrived the
[Timaeus] [2100] forms and perceptions, and thus created another kind of animal. These are
[Timaeus] [2101] the trees and plants and seeds which have been improved by cultivation and
[Timaeus] [2104] may be truly called a living being, and the animal of which we are now
[Timaeus] [2106] between the midriff and the navel, having no part in opinion or reason or
[Timaeus] [2107] mind, but only in feelings of pleasure and pain and the desires which
[Timaeus] [2109] and about itself, repelling the motion from without and using its own, and
[Timaeus] [2111] reflecting on its own concerns. Wherefore it lives and does not differ
[Timaeus] [2112] from a living being, but is fixed and rooted in the same spot, having no
[Timaeus] [2119] back where the skin and the flesh join, which answered severally to the
[Timaeus] [2120] right and left side of the body. These they let down along the backbone,
[Timaeus] [2122] likely to flourish, and in order that the stream coming down from above
[Timaeus] [2123] might flow freely to the other parts, and equalize the irrigation. In the
[Timaeus] [2124] next place, they divided the veins about the head, and interlacing them,
[Timaeus] [2126] they sent to the left of the body, and those from the left they diverted
[Timaeus] [2127] towards the right, so that they and the skin might together form a bond
[Timaeus] [2129] not encircled by sinews; and also in order that the sensations from both
[Timaeus] [2130] sides might be distributed over the whole body. And next, they ordered the
[Timaeus] [2131] water-courses of the body in a manner which I will describe, and which will
[Timaeus] [2134] lesser. Now of all natures fire has the smallest parts, and therefore
[Timaeus] [2135] penetrates through earth and water and air and their compounds, nor can
[Timaeus] [2136] anything hold it. And a similar principle applies to the human belly; for
[Timaeus] [2137] when meats and drinks enter it, it holds them, but it cannot hold air and
[Timaeus] [2143] and air like a weel, having at the entrance two lesser weels; further he
[Timaeus] [2144] constructed one of these with two openings, and from the lesser weels he
[Timaeus] [2146] the interior of the net he made of fire, but the lesser weels and their
[Timaeus] [2147] cavity, of air. The network he took and spread over the newly-formed
[Timaeus] [2149] mouth; there were two of them, and one he let down by the air-pipes into
[Timaeus] [2155] of the body, and at one time he made all this to flow into the lesser
[Timaeus] [2156] weels, quite gently, for they are composed of air, and at another time he
[Timaeus] [2157] caused the lesser weels to flow back again; and the net he made to find a
[Timaeus] [2158] way in and out through the pores of the body, and the rays of fire which
[Timaeus] [2161] as we affirm, the name-giver named inspiration and expiration. And all
[Timaeus] [2163] body, being watered and cooled, may receive nourishment and life; for when
[Timaeus] [2164] the respiration is going in and out, and the fire, which is fast bound
[Timaeus] [2165] within, follows it, and ever and anon moving to and fro, enters through the
[Timaeus] [2166] belly and reaches the meat and drink, it dissolves them, and dividing them
[Timaeus] [2167] into small portions and guiding them through the passages where it goes,
[Timaeus] [2168] pumps them as from a fountain into the channels of the veins, and makes the
[Timaeus] [2171] Let us once more consider the phenomena of respiration, and enquire into
[Timaeus] [2174] which are moved can enter, and the breath is carried from us into the
[Timaeus] [2177] and that which is thrust out in turn drives out its neighbour; and in this
[Timaeus] [2179] the breath came forth, and enters in there, and following the breath, fills
[Timaeus] [2180] up the vacant space; and this goes on like the rotation of a wheel, because
[Timaeus] [2181] there can be no such thing as a vacuum. Wherefore also the breast and the
[Timaeus] [2183] surrounds the body and which enters in through the pores of the flesh and
[Timaeus] [2184] is driven round in a circle; and again, the air which is sent away and
[Timaeus] [2186] of the mouth and the nostrils. Now the origin of this movement may be
[Timaeus] [2188] part is that which is around the blood and veins; it is in a manner an
[Timaeus] [2190] being woven all of fire and extended through the centre of the body, while
[Timaeus] [2192] proceeds outward to its own place and to its kindred element; and as there
[Timaeus] [2193] are two exits for the heat, the one out through the body, and the other
[Timaeus] [2194] through the mouth and nostrils, when it moves towards the one, it drives
[Timaeus] [2195] round the air at the other, and that which is driven round falls into the
[Timaeus] [2196] fire and becomes warm, and that which goes forth is cooled. But when the
[Timaeus] [2197] heat changes its place, and the particles at the other exit grow warmer,
[Timaeus] [2198] the hotter air inclining in that direction and carried towards its native
[Timaeus] [2199] element, fire, pushes round the air at the other; and this being affected
[Timaeus] [2200] in the same way and communicating the same impulse, a circular motion
[Timaeus] [2201] swaying to and fro is produced by the double process, which we call
[Timaeus] [2202] inspiration and expiration.
[Timaeus] [2204] The phenomena of medical cupping-glasses and of the swallowing of drink and
[Timaeus] [2206] the ground, are to be investigated on a similar principle; and swift and
[Timaeus] [2207] slow sounds, which appear to be high and low, and are sometimes discordant
[Timaeus] [2208] on account of their inequality, and then again harmonical on account of the
[Timaeus] [2210] the antecedent swifter sounds begin to pause and the two are equalized, the
[Timaeus] [2211] slower sounds overtake the swifter and then propel them. When they
[Timaeus] [2212] overtake them they do not intrude a new and discordant motion, but
[Timaeus] [2214] dies away, thus producing a single mixed expression out of high and low,
[Timaeus] [2215] whence arises a pleasure which even the unwise feel, and which to the wise
[Timaeus] [2218] thunderbolt, and the marvels that are observed about the attraction of
[Timaeus] [2219] amber and the Heraclean stones,--in none of these cases is there any
[Timaeus] [2223] and that they change places, passing severally into their proper positions
[Timaeus] [2226] Such as we have seen, is the nature and such are the causes of respiration,
[Timaeus] [2228] food and following the breath surges up within, fire and breath rising
[Timaeus] [2229] together and filling the veins by drawing up out of the belly and pouring
[Timaeus] [2230] into them the cut portions of the food; and so the streams of food are kept
[Timaeus] [2231] flowing through the whole body in all animals. And fresh cuttings from
[Timaeus] [2235] by the cutting action of fire and by the impression which it makes on a
[Timaeus] [2236] moist substance; and hence the liquid which circulates in the body has a
[Timaeus] [2238] nourishes the flesh and the whole body, whence all parts are watered and
[Timaeus] [2241] Now the process of repletion and evacuation is effected after the manner of
[Timaeus] [2244] to consume away, and distributing and sending off like to like; the
[Timaeus] [2245] particles of blood, too, which are divided and contained within the frame
[Timaeus] [2249] away than flows in, then we decay, and when less, we grow and increase.
[Timaeus] [2252] new, and may be compared to the keel of a vessel which is just off the
[Timaeus] [2253] stocks; they are locked firmly together and yet the whole mass is soft and
[Timaeus] [2254] delicate, being freshly formed of marrow and nurtured on milk. Now when
[Timaeus] [2255] the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from
[Timaeus] [2256] without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the
[Timaeus] [2257] triangles already there, the frame of the body gets the better of them and
[Timaeus] [2258] its newer triangles cut them up, and so the animal grows great, being
[Timaeus] [2263] come in from without. In this way every animal is overcome and decays, and
[Timaeus] [2264] this affection is called old age. And at last, when the bonds by which the
[Timaeus] [2265] triangles of the marrow are united no longer hold, and are parted by the
[Timaeus] [2266] strain of existence, they in turn loosen the bonds of the soul, and she,
[Timaeus] [2269] is painful. And thus death, if caused by disease or produced by wounds, is
[Timaeus] [2270] painful and violent; but that sort of death which comes with old age and
[Timaeus] [2271] fulfils the debt of nature is the easiest of deaths, and is accompanied
[Timaeus] [2275] which the body is compacted, earth and fire and water and air, and the
[Timaeus] [2278] fire and of the other elements--the assumption by any of these of a wrong
[Timaeus] [2279] kind, or any similar irregularity, produces disorders and diseases; for
[Timaeus] [2281] parts which were previously cool grow warm, and those which were dry become
[Timaeus] [2282] moist, and the light become heavy, and the heavy light; all sorts of
[Timaeus] [2284] itself, whole and sound, when the same is added to it, or subtracted from
[Timaeus] [2285] it, in the same respect and in the same manner and in due proportion; and
[Timaeus] [2287] changes and infinite diseases and corruptions. Now there is a second class
[Timaeus] [2288] of structures which are also natural, and this affords a second opportunity
[Timaeus] [2290] and bone and flesh and sinews are composed of the four elements, and the
[Timaeus] [2295] is that the flesh and sinews should be made of blood, the sinews out of the
[Timaeus] [2296] fibres to which they are akin, and the flesh out of the clots which are
[Timaeus] [2297] formed when the fibres are separated. And the glutinous and rich matter
[Timaeus] [2298] which comes away from the sinews and the flesh, not only glues the flesh to
[Timaeus] [2299] the bones, but nourishes and imparts growth to the bone which surrounds the
[Timaeus] [2300] marrow; and by reason of the solidity of the bones, that which filters
[Timaeus] [2301] through consists of the purest and smoothest and oiliest sort of triangles,
[Timaeus] [2302] dropping like dew from the bones and watering the marrow. Now when each
[Timaeus] [2304] opposite order, disease. For when the flesh becomes decomposed and sends
[Timaeus] [2307] and bitter properties, as well as acid and saline qualities, contains all
[Timaeus] [2308] sorts of bile and serum and phlegm. For all things go the wrong way, and
[Timaeus] [2309] having become corrupted, first they taint the blood itself, and then
[Timaeus] [2313] and are hostile to the abiding constitution of the body, which they corrupt
[Timaeus] [2314] and dissolve. The oldest part of the flesh which is corrupted, being hard
[Timaeus] [2315] to decompose, from long burning grows black, and from being everywhere
[Timaeus] [2316] corroded becomes bitter, and is injurious to every part of the body which
[Timaeus] [2320] and this, when mixed with black, takes the hue of grass; and again, an
[Timaeus] [2328] and acid bile is malignant when mingled by the power of heat with any salt
[Timaeus] [2329] substance, and is then called acid phlegm. Again, the substance which is
[Timaeus] [2330] formed by the liquefaction of new and tender flesh when air is present, if
[Timaeus] [2331] inflated and encased in liquid so as to form bubbles, which separately are
[Timaeus] [2333] is visible, and have a white colour arising out of the generation of
[Timaeus] [2335] termed by us white phlegm. And the whey or sediment of newly-formed phlegm
[Timaeus] [2336] is sweat and tears, and includes the various daily discharges by which the
[Timaeus] [2338] not replenished in a natural manner by food and drink but gains bulk from
[Timaeus] [2341] power of the disorder is only half as great, and there is still a prospect
[Timaeus] [2343] diseased, and no longer being separated from the muscles and sinews, ceases
[Timaeus] [2344] to give nourishment to the bone and to unite flesh and bone, and from being
[Timaeus] [2345] oily and smooth and glutinous becomes rough and salt and dry, owing to bad
[Timaeus] [2347] flesh and the sinews, and separates from the bone, and the fleshy parts
[Timaeus] [2348] fall away from their foundation and leave the sinews bare and full of
[Timaeus] [2349] brine, and the flesh again gets into the circulation of the blood and makes
[Timaeus] [2350] the previously-mentioned disorders still greater. And if these bodily
[Timaeus] [2353] air, but becomes mouldy and hot and gangrened and receives no nutriment,
[Timaeus] [2354] and the natural process is inverted, and the bone crumbling passes into the
[Timaeus] [2355] food, and the food into the flesh, and the flesh again falling into the
[Timaeus] [2358] either from excess or defect; and this is the cause of the very greatest
[Timaeus] [2359] and most fatal disorders, in which the whole course of the body is
[Timaeus] [2363] three ways; for they are produced sometimes by wind, and sometimes by
[Timaeus] [2364] phlegm, and sometimes by bile. When the lung, which is the dispenser of
[Timaeus] [2365] the air to the body, is obstructed by rheums and its passages are not free,
[Timaeus] [2368] of air forcing its way through the veins distorts them and decomposing the
[Timaeus] [2369] body is enclosed in the midst of it and occupies the midriff; thus
[Timaeus] [2371] And oftentimes when the flesh is dissolved in the body, wind, generated
[Timaeus] [2372] within and unable to escape, is the source of quite as much pain as the air
[Timaeus] [2374] about the sinews and the veins of the shoulders, and swells them up, and so
[Timaeus] [2375] twists back the great tendons and the sinews which are connected with them.
[Timaeus] [2376] These disorders are called tetanus and opisthotonus, by reason of the
[Timaeus] [2380] communicate with the outside air, is less severe, and only discolours the
[Timaeus] [2381] body, generating leprous eruptions