Timaeus by Plato
in

Plato Timaeus

This is a hypertextual, self-referential edition of
Timaeus by Plato.
The text was prepared using the Project Gutenberg edition.

Click on any word to see its occurrences in the text;
click on line numbers to go to that line;
click on chapter names to go to that chapter;
or search using the form below.
Search terms can contain spaces and punctuation.

The concordance for Timaeus ordered alphanumerically,
and listed in order of word frequency. Click here for more texts.

There are 661 occurrences of the word:   In

[Timaeus] [24] more firmly fixed in our memories?
[Timaeus] [41] other employment; they were to be merciful in judging their subjects, of
[Timaeus] [43] came across them in battle.
[Timaeus] [48] gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and
[Timaeus] [55] trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which
[Timaeus] [64] life; and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the
[Timaeus] [71] men, and that common pursuits should be assigned to them both in time of
[Timaeus] [72] war and in their ordinary life.
[Timaeus] [78] to be in common, to the intent that no one should ever know his own child,
[Timaeus] [99] were to be on the look-out, and to bring up from below in their turn those
[Timaeus] [115] them in motion or engaged in some struggle or conflict to which their forms
[Timaeus] [119] her neighbours, and how she went out to war in a becoming manner, and when
[Timaeus] [121] words in dealing with other cities a result worthy of her training and
[Timaeus] [123] should never be able to celebrate the city and her citizens in a befitting
[Timaeus] [127] imitators, and will imitate best and most easily the life in which they
[Timaeus] [129] education he finds hard to carry out in action, and still harder adequately
[Timaeus] [130] to represent in language. I am aware that the Sophists have plenty of
[Timaeus] [133] they may fail in their conception of philosophers and statesmen, and may
[Timaeus] [134] not know what they do and say in time of war, when they are fighting or
[Timaeus] [137] once both in politics and philosophy. Here is Timaeus, of Locris in Italy,
[Timaeus] [138] a city which has admirable laws, and who is himself in wealth and rank the
[Timaeus] [140] honourable offices in his own state, and, as I believe, has scaled the
[Timaeus] [142] to be no novice in the matters of which we are speaking; and as to
[Timaeus] [144] qualify him to take part in any speculation of the kind. And therefore
[Timaeus] [148] you had engaged our city in a suitable war, you of all men living could
[Timaeus] [150] in return imposed this other task upon you. You conferred together and
[Timaeus] [152] discourse. Here am I in festive array, and no man can be more ready for
[Timaeus] [155] HERMOCRATES: And we too, Socrates, as Timaeus says, will not be wanting in
[Timaeus] [170] Dropides, as he himself says in many passages of his poems; and he told the
[Timaeus] [174] destruction of mankind, and one in particular, greater than all the rest.
[Timaeus] [190] because he thought so or to please Critias, said that in his judgment Solon
[Timaeus] [196] troubles which he found stirring in his own country when he came home, to
[Timaeus] [197] attend to other matters, in my opinion he would have been as famous as
[Timaeus] [209] He replied:--In the Egyptian Delta, at the head of which the river Nile
[Timaeus] [213] foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by
[Timaeus] [215] the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them. To this
[Timaeus] [217] priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made
[Timaeus] [220] on to speak of antiquity, he began to tell about the most ancient things in
[Timaeus] [227] and there is not an old man among you. Solon in return asked him what he
[Timaeus] [228] meant. I mean to say, he replied, that in mind you are all young; there is
[Timaeus] [235] having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot, because he was not able to
[Timaeus] [236] drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth,
[Timaeus] [238] myth, but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the
[Timaeus] [241] the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction
[Timaeus] [245] the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the
[Timaeus] [246] mountains, but those who, like you, live in cities are carried by the
[Timaeus] [247] rivers into the sea. Whereas in this land, neither then nor at any other
[Timaeus] [251] winter frost or of summer sun does not prevent, mankind exist, sometimes in
[Timaeus] [252] greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. And whatever happened either in your
[Timaeus] [253] country or in ours, or in any other region of which we are informed--if
[Timaeus] [254] there were any actions noble or great or in any other way remarkable, they
[Timaeus] [255] have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.
[Timaeus] [261] what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves. As
[Timaeus] [263] they are no better than the tales of children. In the first place you
[Timaeus] [264] remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones; in the
[Timaeus] [265] next place, you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your land the
[Timaeus] [271] Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities,
[Timaeus] [275] him exactly and in order about these former citizens. You are welcome to
[Timaeus] [283] constitution is recorded in our sacred registers to be 8000 years old. As
[Timaeus] [286] whole we will hereafter go through at our leisure in the sacred registers
[Timaeus] [288] many of ours are the counterpart of yours as they were in the olden time.
[Timaeus] [289] In the first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from
[Timaeus] [293] observe, too, that the warriors in Egypt are distinct from all the other
[Timaeus] [297] us, as in your part of the world first to you. Then as to wisdom, do you
[Timaeus] [303] and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw
[Timaeus] [304] that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the
[Timaeus] [308] laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all
[Timaeus] [311] Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories.
[Timaeus] [312] But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour. For these
[Timaeus] [315] This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the
[Timaeus] [316] Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the
[Timaeus] [323] continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful
[Timaeus] [329] region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in
[Timaeus] [331] pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the
[Timaeus] [337] floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in
[Timaeus] [338] a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner
[Timaeus] [339] disappeared in the depths of the sea. For which reason the sea in those
[Timaeus] [340] parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in
[Timaeus] [347] you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon; but I
[Timaeus] [350] narrative in my own mind, and then I would speak. And so I readily
[Timaeus] [351] assented to your request yesterday, considering that in all such cases the
[Timaeus] [369] The city and citizens, which you yesterday described to us in fiction, we
[Timaeus] [373] harmonize, and there will be no inconsistency in saying that the citizens
[Timaeus] [384] must tell the tale, and good luck to you; and I in return for my
[Timaeus] [387] CRITIAS: Let me proceed to explain to you, Socrates, the order in which we
[Timaeus] [393] by the excellent education which you have given them; and then, in
[Timaeus] [399] SOCRATES: I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid
[Timaeus] [410] an exhortation of myself to speak in such manner as will be most
[Timaeus] [413] First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask, What is
[Timaeus] [416] reason is always in the same state; but that which is conceived by opinion
[Timaeus] [417] with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of
[Timaeus] [427] the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created,
[Timaeus] [430] apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and
[Timaeus] [435] the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world--the pattern
[Timaeus] [441] the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has
[Timaeus] [442] been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind
[Timaeus] [445] everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and
[Timaeus] [454] which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one
[Timaeus] [467] be as like himself as they could be. This is in the truest sense the
[Timaeus] [468] origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on
[Timaeus] [471] whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly
[Timaeus] [472] fashion, out of disorder he brought order, considering that this was in
[Timaeus] [477] intelligence could not be present in anything which was devoid of soul.
[Timaeus] [478] For which reason, when he was framing the universe, he put intelligence in
[Timaeus] [479] soul, and soul in body, that he might be the creator of a work which was by
[Timaeus] [484] This being supposed, let us proceed to the next stage: In the likeness of
[Timaeus] [489] individually and in their tribes are portions. For the original of the
[Timaeus] [490] universe contains in itself all intelligible beings, just as this world
[Timaeus] [494] animals of a kindred nature. Are we right in saying that there is one
[Timaeus] [497] other intelligible creatures cannot have a second or companion; in that
[Timaeus] [500] to resemble not them, but that other which included them. In order then
[Timaeus] [507] has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth. Wherefore also God in
[Timaeus] [513] whenever in any three numbers, whether cube or square, there is a mean,
[Timaeus] [522] two, God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth, and made
[Timaeus] [526] reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the
[Timaeus] [534] them outside. His intention was, in the first place, that the animal
[Timaeus] [547] in the form of a globe, round as from a lathe, having its extremes in every
[Timaeus] [551] for many reasons; in the first place, because the living being had no need
[Timaeus] [559] place in and by himself. For the Creator conceived that a being which was
[Timaeus] [566] made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits
[Timaeus] [567] revolving in a circle. All the other six motions were taken away from him,
[Timaeus] [573] whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in
[Timaeus] [575] formed out of perfect bodies. And in the centre he put the soul, which he
[Timaeus] [577] of it; and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and
[Timaeus] [579] needing no other friendship or acquaintance. Having these purposes in view
[Timaeus] [583] them in this order; for having brought them together he would never have
[Timaeus] [586] much under the dominion of chance. Whereas he made the soul in origin and
[Timaeus] [593] placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and
[Timaeus] [609] and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two
[Timaeus] [611] extremes (as for example 1, 4/3, 2, in which the mean 4/3 is one-third of 1
[Timaeus] [619] connecting terms in the former intervals, he filled up all the intervals of
[Timaeus] [621] which this fraction expressed was in the ratio of 256 to 243 (e.g.
[Timaeus] [630] comprehending them in a uniform revolution upon the same axis, he made the
[Timaeus] [635] in the circle of the Same) to the right, and the motion of the diverse
[Timaeus] [638] that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in
[Timaeus] [639] six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in
[Timaeus] [640] ratios of two and three, three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a
[Timaeus] [644] but in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [650] herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never-ceasing and
[Timaeus] [655] and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due
[Timaeus] [656] proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself, the soul, when
[Timaeus] [657] touching anything which has essence, whether dispersed in parts or
[Timaeus] [660] related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in
[Timaeus] [661] the world of generation and in the world of immutable being. And when
[Timaeus] [662] reason, which works with equal truth, whether she be in the circle of the
[Timaeus] [663] diverse or of the same--in voiceless silence holding her onward course in
[Timaeus] [669] knowledge are necessarily perfected. And if any one affirms that in which
[Timaeus] [674] living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy
[Timaeus] [678] in its fulness upon a creature was impossible. Wherefore he resolved to
[Timaeus] [679] have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he
[Timaeus] [681] itself rests in unity; and this image we call time. For there were no days
[Timaeus] [687] to him, and that 'was' and 'will be' are only to be spoken of becoming in
[Timaeus] [699] Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order
[Timaeus] [704] is, and will be, in all time. Such was the mind and thought of God in the
[Timaeus] [706] the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the
[Timaeus] [708] in the orbits in which the circle of the other was revolving,--in seven
[Timaeus] [709] orbits seven stars. First, there was the moon in the orbit nearest the
[Timaeus] [710] earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the
[Timaeus] [711] morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an
[Timaeus] [712] equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction; and this is the
[Timaeus] [722] bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task, moving in
[Timaeus] [724] governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and
[Timaeus] [725] some in a lesser orbit--those which had the lesser orbit revolving faster,
[Timaeus] [729] the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and
[Timaeus] [733] they proceeded in their eight courses, God lighted a fire, which we now
[Timaeus] [734] call the sun, in the second from the earth of these orbits, that it might
[Timaeus] [736] intended, might participate in number, learning arithmetic from the
[Timaeus] [745] infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time. And yet
[Timaeus] [746] there is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfils
[Timaeus] [751] as in their heavenly progress received reversals of motion, to the end that
[Timaeus] [755] Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the
[Timaeus] [758] proceeded to fashion after the nature of the pattern. Now as in the ideal
[Timaeus] [762] gods; another, the race of birds whose way is in the air; the third, the
[Timaeus] [766] fashioned them after the likeness of the universe in the figure of a
[Timaeus] [772] thoughts about the same things; the second, a forward movement, in which
[Timaeus] [774] other five motions they were unaffected, in order that each of them might
[Timaeus] [778] their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in
[Timaeus] [782] of gods that are in the interior of heaven. Vain would be the attempt to
[Timaeus] [783] tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their
[Timaeus] [784] juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon
[Timaeus] [785] themselves, and their approximations, and to say which of these deities in
[Timaeus] [786] their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what
[Timaeus] [791] would be labour in vain. Enough on this head; and now let what we have
[Timaeus] [799] they declare that they are speaking of what took place in their own family,
[Timaeus] [800] we must conform to custom and believe them. In this manner, then,
[Timaeus] [809] Now, when all of them, both those who visibly appear in their revolutions
[Timaeus] [811] into being, the creator of the universe addressed them in these words:
[Timaeus] [817] dissolved, nor be liable to the fate of death, having in my will a greater
[Timaeus] [823] life at my hands, they would be on an equality with the gods. In order
[Timaeus] [826] formation of animals, imitating the power which was shown by me in creating
[Timaeus] [832] them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death.'
[Timaeus] [834] Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously
[Timaeus] [836] mingled them in much the same manner; they were not, however, pure as
[Timaeus] [838] divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars, and
[Timaeus] [839] assigned each soul to a star; and having there placed them as in a chariot,
[Timaeus] [843] sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come
[Timaeus] [846] implanted in bodies by necessity, and be always gaining or losing some part
[Timaeus] [847] of their bodily substance, then in the first place it would be necessary
[Timaeus] [848] that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation,
[Timaeus] [849] arising out of irresistible impressions; in the second place, they must
[Timaeus] [850] have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle; also fear and anger, and the
[Timaeus] [853] He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his
[Timaeus] [855] But if he failed in attaining this, at the second birth he would pass into
[Timaeus] [856] a woman, and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil,
[Timaeus] [857] he would continually be changed into some brute who resembled him in the
[Timaeus] [863] laws to his creatures, that he might be guiltless of future evil in any of
[Timaeus] [864] them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon,
[Timaeus] [865] and some in the other instruments of time; and when he had sown them he
[Timaeus] [869] mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert
[Timaeus] [872] When the creator had made all these ordinances he remained in his own
[Timaeus] [875] creature, in imitation of their own creator they borrowed portions of fire,
[Timaeus] [880] separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body
[Timaeus] [881] which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux. Now these courses,
[Timaeus] [882] detained as in a vast river, neither overcame nor were overcome; but were
[Timaeus] [884] progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six
[Timaeus] [886] and up and down, and in all the six directions. For great as was the
[Timaeus] [890] solid earth or the gliding waters, or was caught in the tempest borne on
[Timaeus] [893] the general name of 'sensations,' which they still retain. And they did in
[Timaeus] [895] ever-flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the
[Timaeus] [903] twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and
[Timaeus] [904] disordered in every possible manner, so that when they moved they were
[Timaeus] [905] tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse
[Timaeus] [908] ground and his feet up against something in the air; and when he is in such
[Timaeus] [911] similar effects, the revolutions of the soul come in contact with some
[Timaeus] [913] of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth; and
[Timaeus] [914] they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them
[Timaeus] [916] in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul,
[Timaeus] [920] And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal
[Timaeus] [921] body, now, as in the beginning, is at first without intelligence; but when
[Timaeus] [927] combine in him with any true nurture or education, he attains the fulness
[Timaeus] [938] enclosed the two divine courses in a spherical body, that, namely, which we
[Timaeus] [940] that is in us: to this the gods, when they put together the body, gave all
[Timaeus] [942] of motion. In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and
[Timaeus] [952] part, made us to move mostly in a forward direction. Wherefore man must
[Timaeus] [956] And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face in which
[Timaeus] [957] they inserted organs to minister in all things to the providence of the
[Timaeus] [959] the part which is in front. And of the organs they first contrived the
[Timaeus] [964] through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye,
[Timaeus] [968] coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision,
[Timaeus] [970] And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of
[Timaeus] [978] the gods invented for the preservation of sight, are closed, they keep in
[Timaeus] [982] greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality,
[Timaeus] [983] they engender corresponding visions in dreams, which are remembered by us
[Timaeus] [984] when we are awake and in the external world. And now there is no longer
[Timaeus] [985] any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all
[Timaeus] [988] transformations when they meet in the mirror, all these appearances of
[Timaeus] [992] the object in a manner contrary to the usual mode of meeting; but the right
[Timaeus] [1019] has given them to us. The sight in my opinion is the source of the
[Timaeus] [1029] but in vain. Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight
[Timaeus] [1030] to the end that we might behold the courses of intelligence in the heaven,
[Timaeus] [1042] purpose of it in our day, but as meant to correct any discord which may
[Timaeus] [1043] have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her
[Timaeus] [1048] Thus far in what we have been saying, with small exception, the works of
[Timaeus] [1050] in our discourse the things which come into being through necessity--for
[Timaeus] [1053] things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when
[Timaeus] [1055] created. But if a person will truly tell of the way in which the work was
[Timaeus] [1060] were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in
[Timaeus] [1071] be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task. Remembering what I
[Timaeus] [1086] set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and
[Timaeus] [1088] reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all
[Timaeus] [1089] generation. I have spoken the truth; but I must express myself in clearer
[Timaeus] [1090] language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in
[Timaeus] [1098] In the first place, we see that what we just now called water, by
[Timaeus] [1106] in a circle. Thus, then, as the several elements never present themselves
[Timaeus] [1107] in the same form, how can any one have the assurance to assert positively
[Timaeus] [1113] must we imply that there is any stability in any of those things which we
[Timaeus] [1115] signify something thereby; for they are too volatile to be detained in any
[Timaeus] [1119] similar principle circulating in each and all of them; for example, that
[Timaeus] [1121] everything that has generation. That in which the elements severally grow
[Timaeus] [1130] figures which are formed in the gold 'these,' as though they had existence,
[Timaeus] [1131] since they are in process of change while he is making the assertion; but
[Timaeus] [1136] own nature, and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that
[Timaeus] [1141] patterns in a wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter
[Timaeus] [1143] first, that which is in process of generation; secondly, that in which the
[Timaeus] [1148] then the matter in which the model is fashioned will not be duly prepared,
[Timaeus] [1154] receive all forms should have no form; as in making perfumes they first
[Timaeus] [1158] making the surface as even and smooth as possible. In the same way that
[Timaeus] [1162] in any way sensible things, is not to be termed earth, or air, or fire, or
[Timaeus] [1165] things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most
[Timaeus] [1166] incomprehensible. In saying this we shall not be far wrong; as far,
[Timaeus] [1170] the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the
[Timaeus] [1175] only those things which we see, or in some way perceive through the bodily
[Timaeus] [1180] we interpolate in our present long discourse a digression equally long, but
[Timaeus] [1181] if it is possible to set forth a great principle in a few words, that is
[Timaeus] [1187] opinion differs in no respect from mind, then everything that we perceive
[Timaeus] [1190] different nature; the one is implanted in us by instruction, the other by
[Timaeus] [1193] can: and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind
[Timaeus] [1200] it, perceived by sense, created, always in motion, becoming in place and
[Timaeus] [1205] hardly real; which we beholding as in a dream, say of all existence that it
[Timaeus] [1206] must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is
[Timaeus] [1207] neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence. Of these and other things
[Timaeus] [1212] fleeting shadow of some other, must be inferred to be in another (i.e. in
[Timaeus] [1213] space), grasping existence in some way or other, or it could not be at all.
[Timaeus] [1216] exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.
[Timaeus] [1219] that being and space and generation, these three, existed in their three
[Timaeus] [1224] nor equally balanced, was never in any part in a state of equipoise, but
[Timaeus] [1228] winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the
[Timaeus] [1229] close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and
[Timaeus] [1230] the loose and light particles in another. In this manner, the four kinds
[Timaeus] [1238] altogether such as everything might be expected to be in the absence of
[Timaeus] [1240] form and number. Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we
[Timaeus] [1247] In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water
[Timaeus] [1249] solid must necessarily be contained in planes; and every plane rectilinear
[Timaeus] [1253] having equal sides, while in the other the right angle is divided into
[Timaeus] [1264] the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able
[Timaeus] [1268] beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order, and any one who can point out
[Timaeus] [1281] error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and
[Timaeus] [1303] parts the whole circle in which it is inscribed. The second species of
[Timaeus] [1308] in five plane equilateral triangles, having altogether twenty bases, each
[Timaeus] [1313] joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral
[Timaeus] [1317] There was yet a fifth combination which God used in the delineation of the
[Timaeus] [1321] to be regarded as indefinite or definite in number, will be of opinion that
[Timaeus] [1328] forms, which have now been created in idea, among the four elements.
[Timaeus] [1337] triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this
[Timaeus] [1341] smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in
[Timaeus] [1342] size to air; and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in
[Timaeus] [1345] must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the
[Timaeus] [1347] and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the
[Timaeus] [1348] third body in the third degree. Let it be agreed, then, both according to
[Timaeus] [1351] element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to
[Timaeus] [1357] harmonized in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [1361] dissolved by its sharpness, whether the dissolution take place in the fire
[Timaeus] [1362] itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and
[Timaeus] [1367] when a small body of fire is contained in a larger body of air or water or
[Timaeus] [1371] condensed into one part of water. Let us consider the matter in another
[Timaeus] [1376] and in the same state. But so long as in the process of transition the
[Timaeus] [1378] when a few small particles, enclosed in many larger ones, are in process of
[Timaeus] [1393] As to the subordinate species which are included in the greater kinds, they
[Timaeus] [1394] are to be attributed to the varieties in the structure of the two original
[Timaeus] [1403] of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion
[Timaeus] [1405] something more remains to be said, which is, that motion never exists in
[Timaeus] [1412] wanting in uniformity; and of this we have already described the origin.
[Timaeus] [1415] place--which we will now proceed to explain. In the revolution of the
[Timaeus] [1419] penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the
[Timaeus] [1420] elements; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to
[Timaeus] [1422] largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and
[Timaeus] [1428] and thither towards their own places; for the change in the size of each
[Timaeus] [1429] changes its position in space. And these causes generate an inequality
[Timaeus] [1431] of the elements in all time.
[Timaeus] [1433] In the next place we have to consider that there are divers kinds of fire.
[Timaeus] [1436] remains of fire, which are seen in red-hot embers after the flame has been
[Timaeus] [1437] extinguished. There are similar differences in the air; of which the
[Timaeus] [1440] inequality of the triangles. Water, again, admits in the first place of a
[Timaeus] [1446] by reason of its uniformity. But when fire gets in and dissolves the
[Timaeus] [1461] is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour. A shoot
[Timaeus] [1471] there will be no difficulty in reasoning out by the method of
[Timaeus] [1477] to the same subjects which follow next in order.
[Timaeus] [1480] called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the
[Timaeus] [1485] the earth, ice; and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only
[Timaeus] [1489] through plants which grow in the earth; and this whole class is called by
[Timaeus] [1505] stone in the following manner:--The water which mixes with the earth and is
[Timaeus] [1506] broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into
[Timaeus] [1519] occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny
[Timaeus] [1520] nature; out of either of them a half-solid-body is then formed, soluble in
[Timaeus] [1522] other, salt, which harmonizes so well in combinations pleasing to the
[Timaeus] [1526] particles, being smaller than the interstices in its structure, have plenty
[Timaeus] [1538] occupies the vacant interstices of the earth in them which are compressed
[Timaeus] [1551] endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them. In the
[Timaeus] [1559] nature of our hypothesis. In order, then, that the affections may follow
[Timaeus] [1575] which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not
[Timaeus] [1576] being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us; and
[Timaeus] [1588] best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and
[Timaeus] [1592] only ascend against their will. For as the universe is in the form of a
[Timaeus] [1600] in no one part of itself a different relation to the centre from what it
[Timaeus] [1601] has in any of the opposite parts. Indeed, when it is in every direction
[Timaeus] [1603] if there were any solid body in equipoise at the centre of the universe,
[Timaeus] [1606] in a circle, he would often, when standing at the antipodes of his former
[Timaeus] [1608] just now, to speak of the whole which is in the form of a globe as having
[Timaeus] [1612] by the following supposition:--if a person were to stand in that part of
[Timaeus] [1616] particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them, and then, raising
[Timaeus] [1633] that which is light, heavy, below or above in one place will be found to be
[Timaeus] [1634] and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to
[Timaeus] [1635] that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place. And about
[Timaeus] [1646] to be considered--that is, the cause of pleasure and pain in the
[Timaeus] [1647] perceptions of which I have been speaking, and in all other things which
[Timaeus] [1652] easy and which is hard to move; for this is the direction in which we must
[Timaeus] [1655] motion in a circle, the parts communicating with each other, until at last,
[Timaeus] [1664] in them the greatest amount of fire and air. Now we must conceive of
[Timaeus] [1665] pleasure and pain in this way. An impression produced in us contrary to
[Timaeus] [1671] above, is a body naturally uniting with our body in the day-time; for
[Timaeus] [1675] manner in which the eye is affected by the object, and itself strikes and
[Timaeus] [1676] touches it; there is no violence either in the contraction or dilation of
[Timaeus] [1684] the mortal part of the soul, as is manifest in the case of perfumes. But
[Timaeus] [1686] difficulty return to their own nature, have effects in every way opposite
[Timaeus] [1687] to the former, as is evident in the case of burnings and cuttings of the
[Timaeus] [1693] as far as I am able. In the first place let us set forth what was omitted
[Timaeus] [1697] roughness and smoothness than is found in other affections; for whenever
[Timaeus] [1703] nature, and purge the whole surface of the tongue, if they do it in excess,
[Timaeus] [1705] and soda, are all termed bitter. But the particles which are deficient in
[Timaeus] [1708] than otherwise. Bodies which share in and are made smooth by the heat of
[Timaeus] [1709] the mouth, and which are inflamed, and again in turn inflame that which
[Timaeus] [1711] sensations of the head, and cut all that comes in their way, by reason of
[Timaeus] [1712] these qualities in them, are all termed pungent. But when these same
[Timaeus] [1715] set them whirling about one another, and while they are in a whirl cause
[Timaeus] [1721] liquid, which is in a state of general agitation and effervescence, are
[Timaeus] [1724] the mass of entering particles, immersed in the moisture of the mouth, is
[Timaeus] [1737] perceptible only in the intermediate state, when water is changing into air
[Timaeus] [1742] to the respiration, and a man draws in his breath by force, then no smell
[Timaeus] [1750] In considering the third kind of sense, hearing, we must speak of the
[Timaeus] [1751] causes in which it originates. We may in general assume sound to be a blow
[Timaeus] [1754] this blow, which begins in the head and ends in the region of the liver.
[Timaeus] [1764] already, in what has preceded, of the causes which generate sight, and in
[Timaeus] [1771] transparent. The larger produce contraction, the smaller dilation, in the
[Timaeus] [1775] dilation in another sphere, and for this reason have a different
[Timaeus] [1783] outer finds a way in and is extinguished in the moisture, and all sorts of
[Timaeus] [1787] with the moisture of the eye without flashing; and in this, the fire
[Timaeus] [1792] would be foolish in telling, for he could not give any necessary reason,
[Timaeus] [1802] difficulty in seeing how and by what mixtures the colours derived from
[Timaeus] [1813] causes as his ministers in the accomplishment of his work, but himself
[Timaeus] [1814] contriving the good in all his creations. Wherefore we may distinguish two
[Timaeus] [1816] the divine in all things, as far as our nature admits, with a view to the
[Timaeus] [1819] things for which we look cannot be apprehended or received or in any way
[Timaeus] [1825] in a few words to the point at which we began, and then endeavour to add on
[Timaeus] [1828] As I said at first, when all things were in disorder God created in each
[Timaeus] [1829] thing in relation to itself, and in all things in relation to each other,
[Timaeus] [1830] all the measures and harmonies which they could possibly receive. For in
[Timaeus] [1834] first set in order, and out of them he constructed the universe, which was
[Timaeus] [1835] a single animal comprehending in itself all other animals, mortal and
[Timaeus] [1847] unavoidable, they gave to the mortal nature a separate habitation in
[Timaeus] [1850] them apart. And in the breast, and in what is termed the thorax, they
[Timaeus] [1853] women's and men's apartments are divided in houses, and placed the midriff
[Timaeus] [1856] nearer the head, midway between the midriff and the neck, in order that it
[Timaeus] [1857] might be under the rule of reason and might join with it in controlling and
[Timaeus] [1862] through all the limbs, was set in the place of guard, that when the might
[Timaeus] [1865] whole power of feeling in the body, perceiving these commands and threats,
[Timaeus] [1867] principle of the best to have the command in all of them. But the gods,
[Timaeus] [1868] foreknowing that the palpitation of the heart in the expectation of danger
[Timaeus] [1870] implanted as a supporter to the heart the lung, which was, in the first
[Timaeus] [1872] sponge, in order that by receiving the breath and the drink, it might give
[Timaeus] [1877] thus become more ready to join with passion in the service of reason.
[Timaeus] [1881] midriff and the boundary of the navel, contriving in all this region a sort
[Timaeus] [1884] to exist. They appointed this lower creation his place here in order that
[Timaeus] [1888] the whole. And knowing that this lower principle in man would not
[Timaeus] [1892] with it the liver, and placed it in the house of the lower nature,
[Timaeus] [1894] should also have a bitter quality, in order that the power of thought,
[Timaeus] [1895] which proceeds from the mind, might be reflected as in a mirror which
[Timaeus] [1908] resides about the liver happy and joyful, enabling it to pass the night in
[Timaeus] [1909] peace, and to practise divination in sleep, inasmuch as it has no share in
[Timaeus] [1913] measure of truth, placed in the liver the seat of divination. And herein
[Timaeus] [1915] to the foolishness of man. No man, when in his wits, attains prophetic
[Timaeus] [1917] intelligence is enthralled in sleep, or he is demented by some distemper or
[Timaeus] [1919] said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic and
[Timaeus] [1932] Such is the nature of the liver, which is placed as we have described in
[Timaeus] [1939] when any impurities arise in the region of the liver by reason of disorders
[Timaeus] [1951] The creation of the rest of the body follows next in order, and this we may
[Timaeus] [1952] investigate in a similar manner. And it appears to be very meet that the
[Timaeus] [1955] The authors of our race were aware that we should be intemperate in eating
[Timaeus] [1957] reason of gluttony. In order then that disease might not quickly destroy
[Timaeus] [1974] their kinds, and mingling them in due proportions with one another, made
[Timaeus] [1976] and in this seed he then planted and enclosed the souls, and in the
[Timaeus] [1989] Bone was composed by him in the following manner. Having sifted pure and
[Timaeus] [1992] water--in this way by frequent transfers from one to the other he made it
[Timaeus] [1993] insoluble by either. Out of this he fashioned, as in a lathe, a globe made
[Timaeus] [1994] of bone, which he placed around the brain, and in this he left a narrow
[Timaeus] [1998] entire seed, he enclosed it in a stone-like casing, inserting joints, and
[Timaeus] [1999] using in the formation of them the power of the other or diverse as an
[Timaeus] [2003] having this in view, he contrived the sinews and the flesh, that so binding
[Timaeus] [2009] containing in itself a warm moisture which in summer exudes and makes the
[Timaeus] [2011] in winter by the help of this internal warmth would form a very tolerable
[Timaeus] [2017] be in a mean, and gave them a yellow colour; wherefore the sinews have a
[Timaeus] [2020] binding them together by sinews, and then enshrouded them all in an upper
[Timaeus] [2022] in the thinnest film of flesh, and those which had the least life within
[Timaeus] [2023] them in the thickest and most solid flesh. So again on the joints of the
[Timaeus] [2032] soul in the marrow are destitute of reason--all these are abundantly
[Timaeus] [2033] provided with flesh; but such as have mind in them are in general less
[Timaeus] [2034] fleshy, except where the creator has made some part solely of flesh in
[Timaeus] [2036] is not the case. For the nature which comes into being and grows up in us
[Timaeus] [2048] wisdom and sensation than the rest of the body, but also being in every man
[Timaeus] [2050] at the extremity of the head, in a circle round the neck, and glued them
[Timaeus] [2055] the necessary and the good contriving the way in for necessary purposes,
[Timaeus] [2056] the way out for the best purposes; for that is necessary which enters in
[Timaeus] [2060] account of the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons, nor yet
[Timaeus] [2066] moisture, rising up under the sutures, watered and closed in the skin upon
[Timaeus] [2077] root. Thus the hair sprang up in the skin, being akin to it because it is
[Timaeus] [2079] pressure of the cold, by which each hair, while in process of separation
[Timaeus] [2083] or guard, which would give shade in summer and shelter in winter, and at
[Timaeus] [2085] combination of sinew, skin, and bone, in the structure of the finger, there
[Timaeus] [2092] in men at their first creation the rudiments of nails. For this purpose
[Timaeus] [2106] between the midriff and the navel, having no part in opinion or reason or
[Timaeus] [2107] mind, but only in feelings of pleasure and pain and the desires which
[Timaeus] [2108] accompany them. For this nature is always in a passive state, revolving in
[Timaeus] [2112] from a living being, but is fixed and rooted in the same spot, having no
[Timaeus] [2118] stream. In the first place, they cut two hidden channels or veins down the
[Timaeus] [2122] likely to flourish, and in order that the stream coming down from above
[Timaeus] [2123] might flow freely to the other parts, and equalize the irrigation. In the
[Timaeus] [2125] they sent them in opposite directions; those coming from the right side
[Timaeus] [2129] not encircled by sinews; and also in order that the sensations from both
[Timaeus] [2131] water-courses of the body in a manner which I will describe, and which will
[Timaeus] [2148] animal in the following manner:--He let the lesser weels pass into the
[Timaeus] [2158] way in and out through the pores of the body, and the rays of fire which
[Timaeus] [2162] this movement, active as well as passive, takes place in order that the
[Timaeus] [2164] the respiration is going in and out, and the fire, which is fast bound
[Timaeus] [2177] and that which is thrust out in turn drives out its neighbour; and in this
[Timaeus] [2179] the breath came forth, and enters in there, and following the breath, fills
[Timaeus] [2183] surrounds the body and which enters in through the pores of the flesh and
[Timaeus] [2184] is driven round in a circle; and again, the air which is sent away and
[Timaeus] [2187] supposed to be as follows. In the interior of every animal the hottest
[Timaeus] [2188] part is that which is around the blood and veins; it is in a manner an
[Timaeus] [2198] the hotter air inclining in that direction and carried towards its native
[Timaeus] [2200] in the same way and communicating the same impulse, a circular motion
[Timaeus] [2205] of the projection of bodies, whether discharged in the air or bowled along
[Timaeus] [2209] equality of the motion which they excite in us. For when the motions of
[Timaeus] [2216] becomes a higher sort of delight, being an imitation of divine harmony in
[Timaeus] [2219] amber and the Heraclean stones,--in none of these cases is there any
[Timaeus] [2227] --the subject in which this discussion originated. For the fire cuts the
[Timaeus] [2231] flowing through the whole body in all animals. And fresh cuttings from
[Timaeus] [2236] moist substance; and hence the liquid which circulates in the body has a
[Timaeus] [2246] of the animal as in a sort of heaven, are compelled to imitate the motion
[Timaeus] [2249] away than flows in, then we decay, and when less, we grow and increase.
[Timaeus] [2255] the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from
[Timaeus] [2256] without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the
[Timaeus] [2261] in the course of time, they are no longer able to cut or assimilate the
[Timaeus] [2263] come in from without. In this way every animal is overcome and decays, and
[Timaeus] [2266] strain of existence, they in turn loosen the bonds of the soul, and she,
[Timaeus] [2280] when any of them is produced or changed in a manner contrary to nature, the
[Timaeus] [2285] it, in the same respect and in the same manner and in due proportion; and
[Timaeus] [2286] whatever comes or goes away in violation of these laws causes all manner of
[Timaeus] [2292] diseases originate in the way which I have described; but the worst of all
[Timaeus] [2294] proceeds in a wrong order; they are then destroyed. For the natural order
[Timaeus] [2303] process takes place in this order, health commonly results; when in the
[Timaeus] [2306] diverse kinds, mingling with air in the veins, having variegated colours
[Timaeus] [2310] ceasing to give nourishment to the body they are carried along the veins in
[Timaeus] [2324] in many dissimilar things one nature deserving of a name, has assigned the
[Timaeus] [2331] inflated and encased in liquid so as to form bubbles, which separately are
[Timaeus] [2338] not replenished in a natural manner by food and drink but gains bulk from
[Timaeus] [2339] opposite sources in violation of the laws of nature. When the several
[Timaeus] [2359] and most fatal disorders, in which the whole course of the body is
[Timaeus] [2362] There is a third class of diseases which may be conceived of as arising in
[Timaeus] [2367] parts which are unrefreshed by air corrode, while in other parts the excess
[Timaeus] [2369] body is enclosed in the midst of it and occupies the midriff; thus
[Timaeus] [2371] And oftentimes when the flesh is dissolved in the body, wind, generated
[Timaeus] [2373] coming in from without; but the greatest pain is felt when the wind gets
[Timaeus] [2378] in most cases given by fever supervening. The white phlegm, though
[Timaeus] [2383] are the divinest part of us, the attack if coming on in sleep, is not so
[Timaeus] [2391] them originate in bile. When bile finds a means of discharge, it boils up
[Timaeus] [2394] blood; since it then displaces the fibres which are scattered about in the
[Timaeus] [2395] blood and are designed to maintain the balance of rare and dense, in order
[Timaeus] [2397] of the body, nor again become too dense and thus find a difficulty in
[Timaeus] [2400] blood is dead and in process of cooling, then the blood which remains
[Timaeus] [2404] into blood, at the first influx coming in little by little, hot and liquid,
[Timaeus] [2413] belly, and is driven out of the body like an exile from a state in which
[Timaeus] [2419] earth, which is the most sluggish of the four, and is only purged away in a
[Timaeus] [2423] Such is the manner in which diseases of the body arise; the disorders of
[Timaeus] [2426] there are two kinds; to wit, madness and ignorance. In whatever state a
[Timaeus] [2429] diseases to which the soul is liable. For a man who is in great joy or in
[Timaeus] [2430] great pain, in his unreasonable eagerness to attain the one and to avoid
[Timaeus] [2432] and is at the time utterly incapable of any participation in reason. He
[Timaeus] [2435] pleasures in his desires and their offspring, and is for the most part of
[Timaeus] [2440] chiefly to the moisture and fluidity which is produced in one of the
[Timaeus] [2441] elements by the loose consistency of the bones. And in general, all that
[Timaeus] [2446] hateful to every man and happen to him against his will. And in the case
[Timaeus] [2447] of pain too in like manner the soul suffers much evil from the body. For
[Timaeus] [2449] about in the body, and find no exit or escape, but are pent up within and
[Timaeus] [2451] them, they produce all sorts of diseases, more or fewer, and in every
[Timaeus] [2456] body evil forms of government are added and evil discourses are uttered in
[Timaeus] [2457] private as well as in public, and no sort of instruction is given in youth
[Timaeus] [2459] which are entirely beyond our control. In such cases the planters are to
[Timaeus] [2467] that I should say a word in turn; for it is more our duty to speak of the
[Timaeus] [2475] of a great and mighty soul, or conversely, when a little soul is encased in
[Timaeus] [2479] a body which has a leg too long, or which is unsymmetrical in some other
[Timaeus] [2482] awkwardness, and is the cause of infinite evil to its own self--in like
[Timaeus] [2484] being; and when in this compound there is an impassioned soul more powerful
[Timaeus] [2486] whole inner nature of man; and when eager in the pursuit of some sort of
[Timaeus] [2487] learning or study, causes wasting; or again, when teaching or disputing in
[Timaeus] [2488] private or in public, and strifes and controversies arise, inflames and
[Timaeus] [2502] whose thoughts are much absorbed in some intellectual pursuit, must allow
[Timaeus] [2504] careful to fashion the body, should in turn impart to the soul its proper
[Timaeus] [2507] treated in the same manner, in imitation of the pattern of the universe;
[Timaeus] [2511] result is that the body if given up to motion when in a state of quiescence
[Timaeus] [2512] is overmastered and perishes; but if any one, in imitation of that which we
[Timaeus] [2520] in the body, but he will place friend by the side of friend, so as to
[Timaeus] [2521] create health. Now of all motions that is the best which is produced in a
[Timaeus] [2524] worst of all is that which moves the body, when at rest, in parts only and
[Timaeus] [2527] as in sailing or any other mode of conveyance which is not fatiguing; the
[Timaeus] [2528] third sort of motion may be of use in a case of extreme necessity, but in
[Timaeus] [2531] not be irritated by medicines, since every form of disease is in a manner
[Timaeus] [2534] accidents--comes into the world having a fixed span, and the triangles in
[Timaeus] [2543] of the manner in which a man may train and be trained by himself so as to
[Timaeus] [2551] having each of them motions, and I must now repeat in the fewest words
[Timaeus] [2555] of the different parts of the soul should be in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [2560] of a heavenly growth, raises us from earth to our kindred who are in
[Timaeus] [2561] heaven. And in this we say truly; for the divine power suspended the head
[Timaeus] [2567] he has cherished his mortal part. But he who has been earnest in the love
[Timaeus] [2570] truth, and in so far as human nature is capable of sharing in immortality,
[Timaeus] [2572] power, and has the divinity within him in perfect order, he will be
[Timaeus] [2586] generation of other animals, so far as the subject admits of brevity; in
[Timaeus] [2590] with reason be supposed to have changed into the nature of women in the
[Timaeus] [2592] created in us the desire of sexual intercourse, contriving in man one
[Timaeus] [2593] animated substance, and in woman another, which they formed respectively in
[Timaeus] [2598] along the neck and through the back, and which in the preceding discourse
[Timaeus] [2600] with respiration, produces in that part in which it respires a lively
[Timaeus] [2601] desire of emission, and thus creates in us the love of procreation.
[Timaeus] [2602] Wherefore also in men the organ of generation becoming rebellious and
[Timaeus] [2607] proper time, gets discontented and angry, and wandering in every direction
[Timaeus] [2611] together and as it were plucking the fruit from the tree, sow in the womb,
[Timaeus] [2612] as in a field, animals unseen by reason of their smallness and without
[Timaeus] [2617] Thus were created women and the female sex in general. But the race of
[Timaeus] [2619] minds were directed toward heaven, imagined, in their simplicity, that the
[Timaeus] [2623] those who had no philosophy in any of their thoughts, and never considered
[Timaeus] [2626] which are in the breast. In consequence of these habits of theirs they had