Timaeus by Plato

Plato Timaeus

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Timaeus by Plato.
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[Timaeus] [24] more firmly fixed in our memories?
[Timaeus] [41] other employment; they were to be merciful in judging their subjects, of
[Timaeus] [43] came across them in battle.
[Timaeus] [48] gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and
[Timaeus] [55] trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which
[Timaeus] [64] life; and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the
[Timaeus] [71] men, and that common pursuits should be assigned to them both in time of
[Timaeus] [72] war and in their ordinary life.
[Timaeus] [78] to be in common, to the intent that no one should ever know his own child,
[Timaeus] [99] were to be on the look-out, and to bring up from below in their turn those
[Timaeus] [115] them in motion or engaged in some struggle or conflict to which their forms
[Timaeus] [119] her neighbours, and how she went out to war in a becoming manner, and when
[Timaeus] [121] words in dealing with other cities a result worthy of her training and
[Timaeus] [123] should never be able to celebrate the city and her citizens in a befitting
[Timaeus] [127] imitators, and will imitate best and most easily the life in which they
[Timaeus] [129] education he finds hard to carry out in action, and still harder adequately
[Timaeus] [130] to represent in language. I am aware that the Sophists have plenty of
[Timaeus] [133] they may fail in their conception of philosophers and statesmen, and may
[Timaeus] [134] not know what they do and say in time of war, when they are fighting or
[Timaeus] [137] once both in politics and philosophy. Here is Timaeus, of Locris in Italy,
[Timaeus] [138] a city which has admirable laws, and who is himself in wealth and rank the
[Timaeus] [140] honourable offices in his own state, and, as I believe, has scaled the
[Timaeus] [142] to be no novice in the matters of which we are speaking; and as to
[Timaeus] [144] qualify him to take part in any speculation of the kind. And therefore
[Timaeus] [148] you had engaged our city in a suitable war, you of all men living could
[Timaeus] [150] in return imposed this other task upon you. You conferred together and
[Timaeus] [152] discourse. Here am I in festive array, and no man can be more ready for
[Timaeus] [155] HERMOCRATES: And we too, Socrates, as Timaeus says, will not be wanting in
[Timaeus] [170] Dropides, as he himself says in many passages of his poems; and he told the
[Timaeus] [174] destruction of mankind, and one in particular, greater than all the rest.
[Timaeus] [190] because he thought so or to please Critias, said that in his judgment Solon
[Timaeus] [196] troubles which he found stirring in his own country when he came home, to
[Timaeus] [197] attend to other matters, in my opinion he would have been as famous as
[Timaeus] [209] He replied:--In the Egyptian Delta, at the head of which the river Nile
[Timaeus] [213] foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by
[Timaeus] [215] the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them. To this
[Timaeus] [217] priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made
[Timaeus] [220] on to speak of antiquity, he began to tell about the most ancient things in
[Timaeus] [227] and there is not an old man among you. Solon in return asked him what he
[Timaeus] [228] meant. I mean to say, he replied, that in mind you are all young; there is
[Timaeus] [235] having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot, because he was not able to
[Timaeus] [236] drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth,
[Timaeus] [238] myth, but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the
[Timaeus] [241] the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction
[Timaeus] [245] the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the
[Timaeus] [246] mountains, but those who, like you, live in cities are carried by the
[Timaeus] [247] rivers into the sea. Whereas in this land, neither then nor at any other
[Timaeus] [251] winter frost or of summer sun does not prevent, mankind exist, sometimes in
[Timaeus] [252] greater, sometimes in lesser numbers. And whatever happened either in your
[Timaeus] [253] country or in ours, or in any other region of which we are informed--if
[Timaeus] [254] there were any actions noble or great or in any other way remarkable, they
[Timaeus] [255] have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.
[Timaeus] [261] what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves. As
[Timaeus] [263] they are no better than the tales of children. In the first place you
[Timaeus] [264] remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones; in the
[Timaeus] [265] next place, you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your land the
[Timaeus] [271] Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities,
[Timaeus] [275] him exactly and in order about these former citizens. You are welcome to
[Timaeus] [283] constitution is recorded in our sacred registers to be 8000 years old. As
[Timaeus] [286] whole we will hereafter go through at our leisure in the sacred registers
[Timaeus] [288] many of ours are the counterpart of yours as they were in the olden time.
[Timaeus] [289] In the first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from
[Timaeus] [293] observe, too, that the warriors in Egypt are distinct from all the other
[Timaeus] [297] us, as in your part of the world first to you. Then as to wisdom, do you
[Timaeus] [303] and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw
[Timaeus] [304] that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the
[Timaeus] [308] laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all
[Timaeus] [311] Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories.
[Timaeus] [312] But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour. For these
[Timaeus] [315] This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the
[Timaeus] [316] Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the
[Timaeus] [323] continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful
[Timaeus] [329] region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in
[Timaeus] [331] pre-eminent in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the
[Timaeus] [337] floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in
[Timaeus] [338] a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner
[Timaeus] [339] disappeared in the depths of the sea. For which reason the sea in those
[Timaeus] [340] parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in
[Timaeus] [347] you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon; but I
[Timaeus] [350] narrative in my own mind, and then I would speak. And so I readily
[Timaeus] [351] assented to your request yesterday, considering that in all such cases the
[Timaeus] [369] The city and citizens, which you yesterday described to us in fiction, we
[Timaeus] [373] harmonize, and there will be no inconsistency in saying that the citizens
[Timaeus] [384] must tell the tale, and good luck to you; and I in return for my
[Timaeus] [387] CRITIAS: Let me proceed to explain to you, Socrates, the order in which we
[Timaeus] [393] by the excellent education which you have given them; and then, in
[Timaeus] [399] SOCRATES: I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid
[Timaeus] [410] an exhortation of myself to speak in such manner as will be most
[Timaeus] [413] First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask, What is
[Timaeus] [416] reason is always in the same state; but that which is conceived by opinion
[Timaeus] [417] with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of
[Timaeus] [427] the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created,
[Timaeus] [430] apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and
[Timaeus] [435] the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world--the pattern
[Timaeus] [441] the best of causes. And having been created in this way, the world has
[Timaeus] [442] been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind
[Timaeus] [445] everything should be according to nature. And in speaking of the copy and
[Timaeus] [454] which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one
[Timaeus] [467] be as like himself as they could be. This is in the truest sense the
[Timaeus] [468] origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on
[Timaeus] [471] whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly
[Timaeus] [472] fashion, out of disorder he brought order, considering that this was in
[Timaeus] [477] intelligence could not be present in anything which was devoid of soul.
[Timaeus] [478] For which reason, when he was framing the universe, he put intelligence in
[Timaeus] [479] soul, and soul in body, that he might be the creator of a work which was by
[Timaeus] [484] This being supposed, let us proceed to the next stage: In the likeness of
[Timaeus] [489] individually and in their tribes are portions. For the original of the
[Timaeus] [490] universe contains in itself all intelligible beings, just as this world
[Timaeus] [494] animals of a kindred nature. Are we right in saying that there is one
[Timaeus] [497] other intelligible creatures cannot have a second or companion; in that
[Timaeus] [500] to resemble not them, but that other which included them. In order then
[Timaeus] [507] has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth. Wherefore also God in
[Timaeus] [513] whenever in any three numbers, whether cube or square, there is a mean,
[Timaeus] [522] two, God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth, and made
[Timaeus] [526] reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the
[Timaeus] [534] them outside. His intention was, in the first place, that the animal
[Timaeus] [547] in the form of a globe, round as from a lathe, having its extremes in every
[Timaeus] [551] for many reasons; in the first place, because the living being had no need
[Timaeus] [559] place in and by himself. For the Creator conceived that a being which was
[Timaeus] [566] made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits
[Timaeus] [567] revolving in a circle. All the other six motions were taken away from him,
[Timaeus] [573] whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in
[Timaeus] [575] formed out of perfect bodies. And in the centre he put the soul, which he
[Timaeus] [577] of it; and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and
[Timaeus] [579] needing no other friendship or acquaintance. Having these purposes in view
[Timaeus] [583] them in this order; for having brought them together he would never have
[Timaeus] [586] much under the dominion of chance. Whereas he made the soul in origin and
[Timaeus] [593] placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and
[Timaeus] [609] and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two
[Timaeus] [611] extremes (as for example 1, 4/3, 2, in which the mean 4/3 is one-third of 1
[Timaeus] [619] connecting terms in the former intervals, he filled up all the intervals of
[Timaeus] [621] which this fraction expressed was in the ratio of 256 to 243 (e.g.
[Timaeus] [630] comprehending them in a uniform revolution upon the same axis, he made the
[Timaeus] [635] in the circle of the Same) to the right, and the motion of the diverse
[Timaeus] [638] that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in
[Timaeus] [639] six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in
[Timaeus] [640] ratios of two and three, three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a
[Timaeus] [644] but in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [650] herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never-ceasing and
[Timaeus] [655] and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due
[Timaeus] [656] proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself, the soul, when
[Timaeus] [657] touching anything which has essence, whether dispersed in parts or
[Timaeus] [660] related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in
[Timaeus] [661] the world of generation and in the world of immutable being. And when
[Timaeus] [662] reason, which works with equal truth, whether she be in the circle of the
[Timaeus] [663] diverse or of the same--in voiceless silence holding her onward course in
[Timaeus] [669] knowledge are necessarily perfected. And if any one affirms that in which
[Timaeus] [674] living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy
[Timaeus] [678] in its fulness upon a creature was impossible. Wherefore he resolved to
[Timaeus] [679] have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he
[Timaeus] [681] itself rests in unity; and this image we call time. For there were no days
[Timaeus] [687] to him, and that 'was' and 'will be' are only to be spoken of becoming in
[Timaeus] [699] Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order
[Timaeus] [704] is, and will be, in all time. Such was the mind and thought of God in the
[Timaeus] [706] the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the
[Timaeus] [708] in the orbits in which the circle of the other was revolving,--in seven
[Timaeus] [709] orbits seven stars. First, there was the moon in the orbit nearest the
[Timaeus] [710] earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the
[Timaeus] [711] morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an
[Timaeus] [712] equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction; and this is the
[Timaeus] [722] bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task, moving in
[Timaeus] [724] governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and
[Timaeus] [725] some in a lesser orbit--those which had the lesser orbit revolving faster,
[Timaeus] [729] the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and
[Timaeus] [733] they proceeded in their eight courses, God lighted a fire, which we now
[Timaeus] [734] call the sun, in the second from the earth of these orbits, that it might
[Timaeus] [736] intended, might participate in number, learning arithmetic from the
[Timaeus] [745] infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time. And yet
[Timaeus] [746] there is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfils
[Timaeus] [751] as in their heavenly progress received reversals of motion, to the end that
[Timaeus] [755] Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the
[Timaeus] [758] proceeded to fashion after the nature of the pattern. Now as in the ideal
[Timaeus] [762] gods; another, the race of birds whose way is in the air; the third, the
[Timaeus] [766] fashioned them after the likeness of the universe in the figure of a
[Timaeus] [772] thoughts about the same things; the second, a forward movement, in which
[Timaeus] [774] other five motions they were unaffected, in order that each of them might
[Timaeus] [778] their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in
[Timaeus] [782] of gods that are in the interior of heaven. Vain would be the attempt to
[Timaeus] [783] tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their
[Timaeus] [784] juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon
[Timaeus] [785] themselves, and their approximations, and to say which of these deities in
[Timaeus] [786] their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what
[Timaeus] [791] would be labour in vain. Enough on this head; and now let what we have
[Timaeus] [799] they declare that they are speaking of what took place in their own family,
[Timaeus] [800] we must conform to custom and believe them. In this manner, then,
[Timaeus] [809] Now, when all of them, both those who visibly appear in their revolutions
[Timaeus] [811] into being, the creator of the universe addressed them in these words:
[Timaeus] [817] dissolved, nor be liable to the fate of death, having in my will a greater
[Timaeus] [823] life at my hands, they would be on an equality with the gods. In order
[Timaeus] [826] formation of animals, imitating the power which was shown by me in creating
[Timaeus] [832] them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death.'
[Timaeus] [834] Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously
[Timaeus] [836] mingled them in much the same manner; they were not, however, pure as
[Timaeus] [838] divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars, and
[Timaeus] [839] assigned each soul to a star; and having there placed them as in a chariot,
[Timaeus] [843] sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come
[Timaeus] [846] implanted in bodies by necessity, and be always gaining or losing some part
[Timaeus] [847] of their bodily substance, then in the first place it would be necessary
[Timaeus] [848] that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation,
[Timaeus] [849] arising out of irresistible impressions; in the second place, they must
[Timaeus] [850] have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle; also fear and anger, and the
[Timaeus] [853] He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his
[Timaeus] [855] But if he failed in attaining this, at the second birth he would pass into
[Timaeus] [856] a woman, and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil,
[Timaeus] [857] he would continually be changed into some brute who resembled him in the
[Timaeus] [863] laws to his creatures, that he might be guiltless of future evil in any of
[Timaeus] [864] them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon,
[Timaeus] [865] and some in the other instruments of time; and when he had sown them he
[Timaeus] [869] mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert
[Timaeus] [872] When the creator had made all these ordinances he remained in his own
[Timaeus] [875] creature, in imitation of their own creator they borrowed portions of fire,
[Timaeus] [880] separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body
[Timaeus] [881] which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux. Now these courses,
[Timaeus] [882] detained as in a vast river, neither overcame nor were overcome; but were
[Timaeus] [884] progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six
[Timaeus] [886] and up and down, and in all the six directions. For great as was the
[Timaeus] [890] solid earth or the gliding waters, or was caught in the tempest borne on
[Timaeus] [893] the general name of 'sensations,' which they still retain. And they did in
[Timaeus] [895] ever-flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the
[Timaeus] [903] twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and
[Timaeus] [904] disordered in every possible manner, so that when they moved they were
[Timaeus] [905] tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse
[Timaeus] [908] ground and his feet up against something in the air; and when he is in such
[Timaeus] [911] similar effects, the revolutions of the soul come in contact with some
[Timaeus] [913] of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth; and
[Timaeus] [914] they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them
[Timaeus] [916] in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul,
[Timaeus] [920] And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal
[Timaeus] [921] body, now, as in the beginning, is at first without intelligence; but when
[Timaeus] [927] combine in him with any true nurture or education, he attains the fulness
[Timaeus] [938] enclosed the two divine courses in a spherical body, that, namely, which we
[Timaeus] [940] that is in us: to this the gods, when they put together the body, gave all
[Timaeus] [942] of motion. In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and
[Timaeus] [952] part, made us to move mostly in a forward direction. Wherefore man must
[Timaeus] [956] And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face in which
[Timaeus] [957] they inserted organs to minister in all things to the providence of the
[Timaeus] [959] the part which is in front. And of the organs they first contrived the
[Timaeus] [964] through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye,
[Timaeus] [968] coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision,
[Timaeus] [970] And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of
[Timaeus] [978] the gods invented for the preservation of sight, are closed, they keep in
[Timaeus] [982] greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality,
[Timaeus] [983] they engender corresponding visions in dreams, which are remembered by us
[Timaeus] [984] when we are awake and in the external world. And now there is no longer
[Timaeus] [985] any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all
[Timaeus] [988] transformations when they meet in the mirror, all these appearances of
[Timaeus] [992] the object in a manner contrary to the usual mode of meeting; but the right
[Timaeus] [1019] has given them to us. The sight in my opinion is the source of the
[Timaeus] [1029] but in vain. Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight
[Timaeus] [1030] to the end that we might behold the courses of intelligence in the heaven,
[Timaeus] [1042] purpose of it in our day, but as meant to correct any discord which may
[Timaeus] [1043] have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her
[Timaeus] [1048] Thus far in what we have been saying, with small exception, the works of
[Timaeus] [1050] in our discourse the things which come into being through necessity--for
[Timaeus] [1053] things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when
[Timaeus] [1055] created. But if a person will truly tell of the way in which the work was
[Timaeus] [1060] were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in
[Timaeus] [1071] be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task. Remembering what I
[Timaeus] [1086] set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and
[Timaeus] [1088] reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all
[Timaeus] [1089] generation. I have spoken the truth; but I must express myself in clearer
[Timaeus] [1090] language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in
[Timaeus] [1098] In the first place, we see that what we just now called water, by
[Timaeus] [1106] in a circle. Thus, then, as the several elements never present themselves
[Timaeus] [1107] in the same form, how can any one have the assurance to assert positively
[Timaeus] [1113] must we imply that there is any stability in any of those things which we
[Timaeus] [1115] signify something thereby; for they are too volatile to be detained in any
[Timaeus] [1119] similar principle circulating in each and all of them; for example, that
[Timaeus] [1121] everything that has generation. That in which the elements severally grow
[Timaeus] [1130] figures which are formed in the gold 'these,' as though they had existence,
[Timaeus] [1131] since they are in process of change while he is making the assertion; but
[Timaeus] [1136] own nature, and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that
[Timaeus] [1141] patterns in a wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter
[Timaeus] [1143] first, that which is in process of generation; secondly, that in which the
[Timaeus] [1148] then the matter in which the model is fashioned will not be duly prepared,
[Timaeus] [1154] receive all forms should have no form; as in making perfumes they first
[Timaeus] [1158] making the surface as even and smooth as possible. In the same way that
[Timaeus] [1162] in any way sensible things, is not to be termed earth, or air, or fire, or
[Timaeus] [1165] things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most
[Timaeus] [1166] incomprehensible. In saying this we shall not be far wrong; as far,
[Timaeus] [1170] the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the
[Timaeus] [1175] only those things which we see, or in some way perceive through the bodily
[Timaeus] [1180] we interpolate in our present long discourse a digression equally long, but
[Timaeus] [1181] if it is possible to set forth a great principle in a few words, that is
[Timaeus] [1187] opinion differs in no respect from mind, then everything that we perceive
[Timaeus] [1190] different nature; the one is implanted in us by instruction, the other by
[Timaeus] [1193] can: and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind
[Timaeus] [1200] it, perceived by sense, created, always in motion, becoming in place and
[Timaeus] [1205] hardly real; which we beholding as in a dream, say of all existence that it
[Timaeus] [1206] must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is
[Timaeus] [1207] neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence. Of these and other things
[Timaeus] [1212] fleeting shadow of some other, must be inferred to be in another (i.e. in
[Timaeus] [1213] space), grasping existence in some way or other, or it could not be at all.
[Timaeus] [1216] exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.
[Timaeus] [1219] that being and space and generation, these three, existed in their three
[Timaeus] [1224] nor equally balanced, was never in any part in a state of equipoise, but
[Timaeus] [1228] winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the
[Timaeus] [1229] close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and
[Timaeus] [1230] the loose and light particles in another. In this manner, the four kinds
[Timaeus] [1238] altogether such as everything might be expected to be in the absence of
[Timaeus] [1240] form and number. Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we
[Timaeus] [1247] In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water
[Timaeus] [1249] solid must necessarily be contained in planes; and every plane rectilinear
[Timaeus] [1253] having equal sides, while in the other the right angle is divided into
[Timaeus] [1264] the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able
[Timaeus] [1268] beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order, and any one who can point out
[Timaeus] [1281] error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and
[Timaeus] [1303] parts the whole circle in which it is inscribed. The second species of
[Timaeus] [1308] in five plane equilateral triangles, having altogether twenty bases, each
[Timaeus] [1313] joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral
[Timaeus] [1317] There was yet a fifth combination which God used in the delineation of the
[Timaeus] [1321] to be regarded as indefinite or definite in number, will be of opinion that
[Timaeus] [1328] forms, which have now been created in idea, among the four elements.
[Timaeus] [1337] triangle, both in the whole and in the parts. Wherefore, in assigning this
[Timaeus] [1341] smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in
[Timaeus] [1342] size to air; and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in
[Timaeus] [1345] must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the
[Timaeus] [1347] and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the
[Timaeus] [1348] third body in the third degree. Let it be agreed, then, both according to
[Timaeus] [1351] element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to
[Timaeus] [1357] harmonized in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [1361] dissolved by its sharpness, whether the dissolution take place in the fire
[Timaeus] [1362] itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and
[Timaeus] [1367] when a small body of fire is contained in a larger body of air or water or
[Timaeus] [1371] condensed into one part of water. Let us consider the matter in another
[Timaeus] [1376] and in the same state. But so long as in the process of transition the
[Timaeus] [1378] when a few small particles, enclosed in many larger ones, are in process of
[Timaeus] [1393] As to the subordinate species which are included in the greater kinds, they
[Timaeus] [1394] are to be attributed to the varieties in the structure of the two original
[Timaeus] [1403] of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion
[Timaeus] [1405] something more remains to be said, which is, that motion never exists in
[Timaeus] [1412] wanting in uniformity; and of this we have already described the origin.
[Timaeus] [1415] place--which we will now proceed to explain. In the revolution of the
[Timaeus] [1419] penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the
[Timaeus] [1420] elements; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to
[Timaeus] [1422] largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and
[Timaeus] [1428] and thither towards their own places; for the change in the size of each
[Timaeus] [1429] changes its position in space. And these causes generate an inequality
[Timaeus] [1431] of the elements in all time.
[Timaeus] [1433] In the next place we have to consider that there are divers kinds of fire.
[Timaeus] [1436] remains of fire, which are seen in red-hot embers after the flame has been
[Timaeus] [1437] extinguished. There are similar differences in the air; of which the
[Timaeus] [1440] inequality of the triangles. Water, again, admits in the first place of a
[Timaeus] [1446] by reason of its uniformity. But when fire gets in and dissolves the
[Timaeus] [1461] is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour. A shoot
[Timaeus] [1471] there will be no difficulty in reasoning out by the method of
[Timaeus] [1477] to the same subjects which follow next in order.
[Timaeus] [1480] called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the
[Timaeus] [1485] the earth, ice; and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only
[Timaeus] [1489] through plants which grow in the earth; and this whole class is called by
[Timaeus] [1505] stone in the following manner:--The water which mixes with the earth and is
[Timaeus] [1506] broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into
[Timaeus] [1519] occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny
[Timaeus] [1520] nature; out of either of them a half-solid-body is then formed, soluble in
[Timaeus] [1522] other, salt, which harmonizes so well in combinations pleasing to the
[Timaeus] [1526] particles, being smaller than the interstices in its structure, have plenty
[Timaeus] [1538] occupies the vacant interstices of the earth in them which are compressed
[Timaeus] [1551] endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them. In the
[Timaeus] [1559] nature of our hypothesis. In order, then, that the affections may follow
[Timaeus] [1575] which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not
[Timaeus] [1576] being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us; and
[Timaeus] [1588] best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and
[Timaeus] [1592] only ascend against their will. For as the universe is in the form of a
[Timaeus] [1600] in no one part of itself a different relation to the centre from what it
[Timaeus] [1601] has in any of the opposite parts. Indeed, when it is in every direction
[Timaeus] [1603] if there were any solid body in equipoise at the centre of the universe,
[Timaeus] [1606] in a circle, he would often, when standing at the antipodes of his former
[Timaeus] [1608] just now, to speak of the whole which is in the form of a globe as having
[Timaeus] [1612] by the following supposition:--if a person were to stand in that part of
[Timaeus] [1616] particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them, and then, raising
[Timaeus] [1633] that which is light, heavy, below or above in one place will be found to be
[Timaeus] [1634] and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to
[Timaeus] [1635] that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place. And about
[Timaeus] [1646] to be considered--that is, the cause of pleasure and pain in the
[Timaeus] [1647] perceptions of which I have been speaking, and in all other things which
[Timaeus] [1652] easy and which is hard to move; for this is the direction in which we must
[Timaeus] [1655] motion in a circle, the parts communicating with each other, until at last,
[Timaeus] [1664] in them the greatest amount of fire and air. Now we must conceive of
[Timaeus] [1665] pleasure and pain in this way. An impression produced in us contrary to
[Timaeus] [1671] above, is a body naturally uniting with our body in the day-time; for
[Timaeus] [1675] manner in which the eye is affected by the object, and itself strikes and
[Timaeus] [1676] touches it; there is no violence either in the contraction or dilation of
[Timaeus] [1684] the mortal part of the soul, as is manifest in the case of perfumes. But
[Timaeus] [1686] difficulty return to their own nature, have effects in every way opposite
[Timaeus] [1687] to the former, as is evident in the case of burnings and cuttings of the
[Timaeus] [1693] as far as I am able. In the first place let us set forth what was omitted
[Timaeus] [1697] roughness and smoothness than is found in other affections; for whenever
[Timaeus] [1703] nature, and purge the whole surface of the tongue, if they do it in excess,
[Timaeus] [1705] and soda, are all termed bitter. But the particles which are deficient in
[Timaeus] [1708] than otherwise. Bodies which share in and are made smooth by the heat of
[Timaeus] [1709] the mouth, and which are inflamed, and again in turn inflame that which
[Timaeus] [1711] sensations of the head, and cut all that comes in their way, by reason of
[Timaeus] [1712] these qualities in them, are all termed pungent. But when these same
[Timaeus] [1715] set them whirling about one another, and while they are in a whirl cause
[Timaeus] [1721] liquid, which is in a state of general agitation and effervescence, are
[Timaeus] [1724] the mass of entering particles, immersed in the moisture of the mouth, is
[Timaeus] [1737] perceptible only in the intermediate state, when water is changing into air
[Timaeus] [1742] to the respiration, and a man draws in his breath by force, then no smell
[Timaeus] [1750] In considering the third kind of sense, hearing, we must speak of the
[Timaeus] [1751] causes in which it originates. We may in general assume sound to be a blow
[Timaeus] [1754] this blow, which begins in the head and ends in the region of the liver.
[Timaeus] [1764] already, in what has preceded, of the causes which generate sight, and in
[Timaeus] [1771] transparent. The larger produce contraction, the smaller dilation, in the
[Timaeus] [1775] dilation in another sphere, and for this reason have a different
[Timaeus] [1783] outer finds a way in and is extinguished in the moisture, and all sorts of
[Timaeus] [1787] with the moisture of the eye without flashing; and in this, the fire
[Timaeus] [1792] would be foolish in telling, for he could not give any necessary reason,
[Timaeus] [1802] difficulty in seeing how and by what mixtures the colours derived from
[Timaeus] [1813] causes as his ministers in the accomplishment of his work, but himself
[Timaeus] [1814] contriving the good in all his creations. Wherefore we may distinguish two
[Timaeus] [1816] the divine in all things, as far as our nature admits, with a view to the
[Timaeus] [1819] things for which we look cannot be apprehended or received or in any way
[Timaeus] [1825] in a few words to the point at which we began, and then endeavour to add on
[Timaeus] [1828] As I said at first, when all things were in disorder God created in each
[Timaeus] [1829] thing in relation to itself, and in all things in relation to each other,
[Timaeus] [1830] all the measures and harmonies which they could possibly receive. For in
[Timaeus] [1834] first set in order, and out of them he constructed the universe, which was
[Timaeus] [1835] a single animal comprehending in itself all other animals, mortal and
[Timaeus] [1847] unavoidable, they gave to the mortal nature a separate habitation in
[Timaeus] [1850] them apart. And in the breast, and in what is termed the thorax, they
[Timaeus] [1853] women's and men's apartments are divided in houses, and placed the midriff
[Timaeus] [1856] nearer the head, midway between the midriff and the neck, in order that it
[Timaeus] [1857] might be under the rule of reason and might join with it in controlling and
[Timaeus] [1862] through all the limbs, was set in the place of guard, that when the might
[Timaeus] [1865] whole power of feeling in the body, perceiving these commands and threats,
[Timaeus] [1867] principle of the best to have the command in all of them. But the gods,
[Timaeus] [1868] foreknowing that the palpitation of the heart in the expectation of danger
[Timaeus] [1870] implanted as a supporter to the heart the lung, which was, in the first
[Timaeus] [1872] sponge, in order that by receiving the breath and the drink, it might give
[Timaeus] [1877] thus become more ready to join with passion in the service of reason.
[Timaeus] [1881] midriff and the boundary of the navel, contriving in all this region a sort
[Timaeus] [1884] to exist. They appointed this lower creation his place here in order that
[Timaeus] [1888] the whole. And knowing that this lower principle in man would not
[Timaeus] [1892] with it the liver, and placed it in the house of the lower nature,
[Timaeus] [1894] should also have a bitter quality, in order that the power of thought,
[Timaeus] [1895] which proceeds from the mind, might be reflected as in a mirror which
[Timaeus] [1908] resides about the liver happy and joyful, enabling it to pass the night in
[Timaeus] [1909] peace, and to practise divination in sleep, inasmuch as it has no share in
[Timaeus] [1913] measure of truth, placed in the liver the seat of divination. And herein
[Timaeus] [1915] to the foolishness of man. No man, when in his wits, attains prophetic
[Timaeus] [1917] intelligence is enthralled in sleep, or he is demented by some distemper or
[Timaeus] [1919] said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic and
[Timaeus] [1932] Such is the nature of the liver, which is placed as we have described in
[Timaeus] [1939] when any impurities arise in the region of the liver by reason of disorders
[Timaeus] [1951] The creation of the rest of the body follows next in order, and this we may
[Timaeus] [1952] investigate in a similar manner. And it appears to be very meet that the
[Timaeus] [1955] The authors of our race were aware that we should be intemperate in eating
[Timaeus] [1957] reason of gluttony. In order then that disease might not quickly destroy
[Timaeus] [1974] their kinds, and mingling them in due proportions with one another, made
[Timaeus] [1976] and in this seed he then planted and enclosed the souls, and in the
[Timaeus] [1989] Bone was composed by him in the following manner. Having sifted pure and
[Timaeus] [1992] water--in this way by frequent transfers from one to the other he made it
[Timaeus] [1993] insoluble by either. Out of this he fashioned, as in a lathe, a globe made
[Timaeus] [1994] of bone, which he placed around the brain, and in this he left a narrow
[Timaeus] [1998] entire seed, he enclosed it in a stone-like casing, inserting joints, and
[Timaeus] [1999] using in the formation of them the power of the other or diverse as an
[Timaeus] [2003] having this in view, he contrived the sinews and the flesh, that so binding
[Timaeus] [2009] containing in itself a warm moisture which in summer exudes and makes the
[Timaeus] [2011] in winter by the help of this internal warmth would form a very tolerable
[Timaeus] [2017] be in a mean, and gave them a yellow colour; wherefore the sinews have a
[Timaeus] [2020] binding them together by sinews, and then enshrouded them all in an upper
[Timaeus] [2022] in the thinnest film of flesh, and those which had the least life within
[Timaeus] [2023] them in the thickest and most solid flesh. So again on the joints of the
[Timaeus] [2032] soul in the marrow are destitute of reason--all these are abundantly
[Timaeus] [2033] provided with flesh; but such as have mind in them are in general less
[Timaeus] [2034] fleshy, except where the creator has made some part solely of flesh in
[Timaeus] [2036] is not the case. For the nature which comes into being and grows up in us
[Timaeus] [2048] wisdom and sensation than the rest of the body, but also being in every man
[Timaeus] [2050] at the extremity of the head, in a circle round the neck, and glued them
[Timaeus] [2055] the necessary and the good contriving the way in for necessary purposes,
[Timaeus] [2056] the way out for the best purposes; for that is necessary which enters in
[Timaeus] [2060] account of the extremes of heat and cold in the different seasons, nor yet
[Timaeus] [2066] moisture, rising up under the sutures, watered and closed in the skin upon
[Timaeus] [2077] root. Thus the hair sprang up in the skin, being akin to it because it is
[Timaeus] [2079] pressure of the cold, by which each hair, while in process of separation
[Timaeus] [2083] or guard, which would give shade in summer and shelter in winter, and at
[Timaeus] [2085] combination of sinew, skin, and bone, in the structure of the finger, there
[Timaeus] [2092] in men at their first creation the rudiments of nails. For this purpose
[Timaeus] [2106] between the midriff and the navel, having no part in opinion or reason or
[Timaeus] [2107] mind, but only in feelings of pleasure and pain and the desires which
[Timaeus] [2108] accompany them. For this nature is always in a passive state, revolving in
[Timaeus] [2112] from a living being, but is fixed and rooted in the same spot, having no
[Timaeus] [2118] stream. In the first place, they cut two hidden channels or veins down the
[Timaeus] [2122] likely to flourish, and in order that the stream coming down from above
[Timaeus] [2123] might flow freely to the other parts, and equalize the irrigation. In the
[Timaeus] [2125] they sent them in opposite directions; those coming from the right side
[Timaeus] [2129] not encircled by sinews; and also in order that the sensations from both
[Timaeus] [2131] water-courses of the body in a manner which I will describe, and which will
[Timaeus] [2148] animal in the following manner:--He let the lesser weels pass into the
[Timaeus] [2158] way in and out through the pores of the body, and the rays of fire which
[Timaeus] [2162] this movement, active as well as passive, takes place in order that the
[Timaeus] [2164] the respiration is going in and out, and the fire, which is fast bound
[Timaeus] [2177] and that which is thrust out in turn drives out its neighbour; and in this
[Timaeus] [2179] the breath came forth, and enters in there, and following the breath, fills
[Timaeus] [2183] surrounds the body and which enters in through the pores of the flesh and
[Timaeus] [2184] is driven round in a circle; and again, the air which is sent away and
[Timaeus] [2187] supposed to be as follows. In the interior of every animal the hottest
[Timaeus] [2188] part is that which is around the blood and veins; it is in a manner an
[Timaeus] [2198] the hotter air inclining in that direction and carried towards its native
[Timaeus] [2200] in the same way and communicating the same impulse, a circular motion
[Timaeus] [2205] of the projection of bodies, whether discharged in the air or bowled along
[Timaeus] [2209] equality of the motion which they excite in us. For when the motions of
[Timaeus] [2216] becomes a higher sort of delight, being an imitation of divine harmony in
[Timaeus] [2219] amber and the Heraclean stones,--in none of these cases is there any
[Timaeus] [2227] --the subject in which this discussion originated. For the fire cuts the
[Timaeus] [2231] flowing through the whole body in all animals. And fresh cuttings from
[Timaeus] [2236] moist substance; and hence the liquid which circulates in the body has a
[Timaeus] [2246] of the animal as in a sort of heaven, are compelled to imitate the motion
[Timaeus] [2249] away than flows in, then we decay, and when less, we grow and increase.
[Timaeus] [2255] the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from
[Timaeus] [2256] without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the
[Timaeus] [2261] in the course of time, they are no longer able to cut or assimilate the
[Timaeus] [2263] come in from without. In this way every animal is overcome and decays, and
[Timaeus] [2266] strain of existence, they in turn loosen the bonds of the soul, and she,
[Timaeus] [2280] when any of them is produced or changed in a manner contrary to nature, the
[Timaeus] [2285] it, in the same respect and in the same manner and in due proportion; and
[Timaeus] [2286] whatever comes or goes away in violation of these laws causes all manner of
[Timaeus] [2292] diseases originate in the way which I have described; but the worst of all
[Timaeus] [2294] proceeds in a wrong order; they are then destroyed. For the natural order
[Timaeus] [2303] process takes place in this order, health commonly results; when in the
[Timaeus] [2306] diverse kinds, mingling with air in the veins, having variegated colours
[Timaeus] [2310] ceasing to give nourishment to the body they are carried along the veins in
[Timaeus] [2324] in many dissimilar things one nature deserving of a name, has assigned the
[Timaeus] [2331] inflated and encased in liquid so as to form bubbles, which separately are
[Timaeus] [2338] not replenished in a natural manner by food and drink but gains bulk from
[Timaeus] [2339] opposite sources in violation of the laws of nature. When the several
[Timaeus] [2359] and most fatal disorders, in which the whole course of the body is
[Timaeus] [2362] There is a third class of diseases which may be conceived of as arising in
[Timaeus] [2367] parts which are unrefreshed by air corrode, while in other parts the excess
[Timaeus] [2369] body is enclosed in the midst of it and occupies the midriff; thus
[Timaeus] [2371] And oftentimes when the flesh is dissolved in the body, wind, generated
[Timaeus] [2373] coming in from without; but the greatest pain is felt when the wind gets
[Timaeus] [2378] in most cases given by fever supervening. The white phlegm, though
[Timaeus] [2383] are the divinest part of us, the attack if coming on in sleep, is not so
[Timaeus] [2391] them originate in bile. When bile finds a means of discharge, it boils up
[Timaeus] [2394] blood; since it then displaces the fibres which are scattered about in the
[Timaeus] [2395] blood and are designed to maintain the balance of rare and dense, in order
[Timaeus] [2397] of the body, nor again become too dense and thus find a difficulty in
[Timaeus] [2400] blood is dead and in process of cooling, then the blood which remains
[Timaeus] [2404] into blood, at the first influx coming in little by little, hot and liquid,
[Timaeus] [2413] belly, and is driven out of the body like an exile from a state in which
[Timaeus] [2419] earth, which is the most sluggish of the four, and is only purged away in a
[Timaeus] [2423] Such is the manner in which diseases of the body arise; the disorders of
[Timaeus] [2426] there are two kinds; to wit, madness and ignorance. In whatever state a
[Timaeus] [2429] diseases to which the soul is liable. For a man who is in great joy or in
[Timaeus] [2430] great pain, in his unreasonable eagerness to attain the one and to avoid
[Timaeus] [2432] and is at the time utterly incapable of any participation in reason. He
[Timaeus] [2435] pleasures in his desires and their offspring, and is for the most part of
[Timaeus] [2440] chiefly to the moisture and fluidity which is produced in one of the
[Timaeus] [2441] elements by the loose consistency of the bones. And in general, all that
[Timaeus] [2446] hateful to every man and happen to him against his will. And in the case
[Timaeus] [2447] of pain too in like manner the soul suffers much evil from the body. For
[Timaeus] [2449] about in the body, and find no exit or escape, but are pent up within and
[Timaeus] [2451] them, they produce all sorts of diseases, more or fewer, and in every
[Timaeus] [2456] body evil forms of government are added and evil discourses are uttered in
[Timaeus] [2457] private as well as in public, and no sort of instruction is given in youth
[Timaeus] [2459] which are entirely beyond our control. In such cases the planters are to
[Timaeus] [2467] that I should say a word in turn; for it is more our duty to speak of the
[Timaeus] [2475] of a great and mighty soul, or conversely, when a little soul is encased in
[Timaeus] [2479] a body which has a leg too long, or which is unsymmetrical in some other
[Timaeus] [2482] awkwardness, and is the cause of infinite evil to its own self--in like
[Timaeus] [2484] being; and when in this compound there is an impassioned soul more powerful
[Timaeus] [2486] whole inner nature of man; and when eager in the pursuit of some sort of
[Timaeus] [2487] learning or study, causes wasting; or again, when teaching or disputing in
[Timaeus] [2488] private or in public, and strifes and controversies arise, inflames and
[Timaeus] [2502] whose thoughts are much absorbed in some intellectual pursuit, must allow
[Timaeus] [2504] careful to fashion the body, should in turn impart to the soul its proper
[Timaeus] [2507] treated in the same manner, in imitation of the pattern of the universe;
[Timaeus] [2511] result is that the body if given up to motion when in a state of quiescence
[Timaeus] [2512] is overmastered and perishes; but if any one, in imitation of that which we
[Timaeus] [2520] in the body, but he will place friend by the side of friend, so as to
[Timaeus] [2521] create health. Now of all motions that is the best which is produced in a
[Timaeus] [2524] worst of all is that which moves the body, when at rest, in parts only and
[Timaeus] [2527] as in sailing or any other mode of conveyance which is not fatiguing; the
[Timaeus] [2528] third sort of motion may be of use in a case of extreme necessity, but in
[Timaeus] [2531] not be irritated by medicines, since every form of disease is in a manner
[Timaeus] [2534] accidents--comes into the world having a fixed span, and the triangles in
[Timaeus] [2543] of the manner in which a man may train and be trained by himself so as to
[Timaeus] [2551] having each of them motions, and I must now repeat in the fewest words
[Timaeus] [2555] of the different parts of the soul should be in due proportion.
[Timaeus] [2560] of a heavenly growth, raises us from earth to our kindred who are in
[Timaeus] [2561] heaven. And in this we say truly; for the divine power suspended the head
[Timaeus] [2567] he has cherished his mortal part. But he who has been earnest in the love
[Timaeus] [2570] truth, and in so far as human nature is capable of sharing in immortality,
[Timaeus] [2572] power, and has the divinity within him in perfect order, he will be
[Timaeus] [2586] generation of other animals, so far as the subject admits of brevity; in
[Timaeus] [2590] with reason be supposed to have changed into the nature of women in the
[Timaeus] [2592] created in us the desire of sexual intercourse, contriving in man one
[Timaeus] [2593] animated substance, and in woman another, which they formed respectively in
[Timaeus] [2598] along the neck and through the back, and which in the preceding discourse
[Timaeus] [2600] with respiration, produces in that part in which it respires a lively
[Timaeus] [2601] desire of emission, and thus creates in us the love of procreation.
[Timaeus] [2602] Wherefore also in men the organ of generation becoming rebellious and
[Timaeus] [2607] proper time, gets discontented and angry, and wandering in every direction
[Timaeus] [2611] together and as it were plucking the fruit from the tree, sow in the womb,
[Timaeus] [2612] as in a field, animals unseen by reason of their smallness and without
[Timaeus] [2617] Thus were created women and the female sex in general. But the race of
[Timaeus] [2619] minds were directed toward heaven, imagined, in their simplicity, that the
[Timaeus] [2623] those who had no philosophy in any of their thoughts, and never considered
[Timaeus] [2626] which are in the breast. In consequence of these habits of theirs they had