The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early autism diagnosis from infant structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vital step to achieve this goal is to get accurate segmentation of the different brain structures: whitematter, graymatter, and cerebrospinal fluid, which will be the main focus of this thesis. The proposed brain classification approach consists of two major steps. First, the brain is extracted based on the integration of a stochastic model that serves to learn the visual appearance of the brain texture, and a geometric model that preserves the brain geometry during the extraction process. Secondly, the brain tissues are segmented based on shape priors, built using a subset of co-aligned training images, that is adapted during the segmentation process using first- and second-order visual appearance features of infant MRIs. The accuracy of the presented segmentation approach has been tested on 300 infant subjects and evaluated blindly on 15 adult subjects. The experimental results have been evaluated by the MICCAI MR Brain Image Segmentation (MRBrainS13) challenge organizers using three metrics: Dice coefficient, 95-percentile Hausdorff distance, and absolute volume difference. The proposed method has been ranked the first in terms of performance and speed.