- Why Is the Frame Problem Important?
- The Role of Representation in Artificial Intelligence
- The Limits of the Representational Approach
- The Role of Representation in Robotics
- The Role of Logic in Knowledge Representation

- Describing the Non-Effects of Actions
- Introducing the Situation Calculus
- Frame Axioms
- Towards a Solution
- Making Frame Axioms More Compact
- Criteria for a Solution to the Frame Problem
- Elaboration Tolerance
- Non-Monotonic Solutions
- The Common Sense Law of Inertia
- Monotonic Versus Non-Monotonic Solutions
- Explanations, Qualifications and Narratives
- Philosophical Reflections

- The Language of Predicate Calculus
- The Semantics of Predicate Calculus
- Many-Sorted Predicate Calculus
- Second-Order Predicate Calculus
- The Ontology and Language of Situation Calculus
- Situation Calculus Formulae
- Situations and the Result Function
- The Limitations of the Situation Calculus
- Default Reasoning
- Circumscription
- More Complicated Circumscription Policies

- Formalising the Common Sense Law of Inertia
- An Example that Works
- The Hanks-McDermott Problem
- Variations on Hanks and McDermottÕs Theme
- Differences in Situation Calculus Style
- The Importance of the Hanks-McDermott Problem

- The Yale Shooting Scenario in Default Logic
- Generating Extensions in Default Logic
- The Directionality of Time
- Formalising Chronological Minimisation
- Chronological Minimisation and the Yale Shooting Scenario
- Chronological Minimisation and the Stolen Car Scenario
- Improving Chronological Minimisation

- Eliminating Spontaneous Change
- Causal Minimisation and the Yale Shooting Scenario
- The Principles of Separation and Directionality
- Actions with Context-Dependent Effects
- Causal Minimisation and Explanation
- Ramifications and Causal Minimisation

- Varying the Result Function
- Adding an Existence-of-Situations Axiom
- The Need for Domain Closure Axioms
- A Universal Existence-of-Situations Axiom

- Logical Prerequisites
- First-Order Formalisations
- Applying State-Based Minimisation
- State-Based Minimisation and Explanation
- A Second-Order Existence-of-Situations Axiom
- General Theorems about State-Based Minimisation

- Explanation Closure Axioms
- Ramifications and Explanation Closure
- Automatically Derived Frame Axioms
- Successor State Axioms
- Ramifications and Successor State Axioms
- The Language A

- The Need for Narratives
- Arboreality and Existence-of-Situations
- Associating a Time with Each Actual Situation
- Two Theorems of Circumscription
- Two Separation Theorems for Narratives
- Associating a Situation with Each Time Point
- Comparing the Approaches

- Over-Zealous Event Occurrence Minimisation
- Context-Sensitive Event Occurrence Minimisation
- A Worked Example of Narratives as Contexts
- Concurrent Actions in the Situation Calculus
- Narratives with Concurrent Actions

- The Basis of Logic Programming
- SLD-Resolution
- A Logic Programming System
- Logic Programming and the Situation Calculus
- Negation as Failure
- The Semantics of Negation-as-Failure

- Negation-as-Failure and the Situation Calculus
- Situation Calculus Semantic Issues
- Knowledge Representation Issues
- Introducing the Event Calculus
- Applying the Original Event Calculus

- A Simplified Event Calculus
- Event Calculus Semantic Issues
- Representing Continuous Change in the Event Calculus
- Triggered Events and Continuous Change

- The Simplified Event Calculus with Circumscription 257
- States
- A Calculus of Events
- The Blocks World
- A Separation Theorem for the Calculus
- The Yale Shooting Scenario

- Ramifications
- Non-Deterministic Effects
- Releasing Fluents
- Concurrent Events
- Continuous Change

- Eliminating Existence-of-Situations Axioms
- The Intuition Behind Forced Separation
- An Event Calculus Using Forced Separation
- Continuous Change and Triggered Events

- Explanation in the Situation Calculus
- Towards a Narrative-Based Approach
- Narratives and Explanation
- A Hard Example for State-Based Minimisation
- A Hard Example for the Deductive Approach
- The Abductive Approach
- Abduction and Knowledge Assimilation
- Non-Determinism and the Abductive Approach
- Abduction and the Circumscriptive Event Calculus